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4^ #■■ 


fc\ of "3Rine&. 

Pepavfm«?nt M 


(P. G. MORGAN, Director). 

BULLETIN No. 20 (New Series). 








Dean of the Mining Faculty, Otago University, Dunedin. 




. accoTTLpany BxMetxrv mZO , Oarruxru, District, Eastei-rvOta^o Dlvisiorv , Otogo LccrvADist. 





Table Top Hill 
Oamaru Creek . ' ^ 

Landon Creek 

C 8 '8753 p 

Section alon g Line EF, Papakaio and Oamaru Surv ey Districts. - 

A wamoa Sync/ine 

Branch of Waiareka Creek 

Oamaru Creek 

Grant Stream 

The Sea 

Section alon g Line CD. Awamoko and Oamaru Surve y Districts. 

Waiareka Anticline 

Awamoa Syncline 

Kakanui River 

Waiareka Creek Main South M 

Main Trunk RIy. Awamoa Creek 

Kaiarero Creek 

Cape Wan brow 
The Sea 

Section alon g Line AB, Oamaru Surv e y District. — 




-1— I— 

-1— I- 


— i — 


24-0 CHAINS 











— Reference to Geolo i^ ical Colours. — 

River gravels, forming river flats and low terraces 

High level gravels 

Blue marine clays and sandy shell beds 

Greensands and gleuconitic sandstones 

Deborah (= Hutchinson's Quarry) Limestone 

Deborah (^Mineral) Tuffs 

Oamaru Stone _ 

Waiareka tuffs and minor lava flows. (pillow lavas).-- 
SEIdersl/e blue clays, micaceous sandstones, quartzose^ 
igrits and conglomerates with lignite seam.- S 

Basaltic s/l/s and dykes below Oamaru Stone 


FEET 1000 500 





3000 FEET 


I I I I I I ITTTi-- 



METRES 100 50 


1000 METRES 


Drawn.i)fG.KEam!,, 1316. 

To accompany BjJ/s/.in m2I, Gishorrt^ and WhxitaUan' Subdivisions. Rcuikumara, Dixision. Flawkes Baj Land Di sir icf . 


Reads shown dute ==*==S5: 

Tracke „ „_ „.^''".='' Stations ,, j> - C ©IBfi' 

Edges of Bush „ „_ 7<H>/^v^ 

Swamp „ „_ ""ji.^.-*- 

Water RcLces „ „ _ ~J^-~~^, 

Waterfalls and Dams „ „_ .-^J^"^ 

Springs „ _ _„ - -^ 

BoreJvoles « „_ ® 

NOTE. — In order to exhibit the probable distribution of the 
older rocks, portions o£ Mr. J. H. Adams's areas of superficial 
rocks have been coloured to indicate the underlying rocks, 
but bis boundaries are still shown by dotted lines. 




-Scale of Chains 

Compiled fraTD. data obtained from. theLands and Survcf Dcpartmenl . 
and from additional surveys hy J RAdams. J. Henderson ^M.Ong'U/ 
of the GwLogical Survey Bran^ of the Mines Department. 
Geology ty J.KAdams, JHenderson- and M.Ongley. 

' Reference to Geolo g ical Colours and S ign 

RECEKT AND JFIuvlaMIe and estuarlne gravele, eands and silts. I 
LATE pleistocene! BeBth deposits and raised Iwaches. Aorial tuff. L 

IWaipaoi Series. 
Fluvialilo, delUiia, and marine 


(Ormond Ssrlei. 

Limestone, tuTaceous and calcareous sandstone, and I 

-■--1 1 I 


[Mudstono. argiilaccou: 


[ Mudstone, argillaceous sandstone, 
U neon form it jr. 

1 Shalj mudstone and sandilone. - 

( Mangalu Strles. 

sandstone, greensandslono, and clay- 


Outcrops with observed strike and dip 

Outcrops with no observed strike and dip.- 

Outcrops with vertical bedding 

Outcrops with horizonlal bedding. -. 

Conglomerate bands 

Enlinet Gas Vents 

To ctccompany BuUMin, N921.GUhoT-ne and, WhtUatiUu SuhdTvi.'iions. Rfuikuntara Division, Ha^ykrn Bay Land Distruf 

To ,ucompa„y BuUelmN921. GMorne and matatuiu Suhdxyuions. RfMihtmarn Division . Hawk^:-< Boa- Land D,str,ct 

To txi:roinpmiy Bit^^Mirt Ni'21, Gishorne and mmUitulu- SubdivUions. B.iutkum/jTu DivUum . Ho^^hcs Bay Land Di-^fru- 

To accoT/tp 

Triqorwmetricai, Staiii 
Ed^es of Bush 

Water Races 

iVaterfh.Hj and Dams 
Shafta and Drives 


I 6336 

■ Reference to Geolo g ical Colours and Si gns - 

Conmiled from data obtaxnrd from the Lands and Surf^Depoi-iment, 
and from additional surveys by JMsndnrson. and MOn^ley 
of the Geological Survey BrancK of the Mirt£s Departmem. 
Geology hy J'.Henderson and MOrtgley, 


ns efaveli, iands a 
rolsert beachss. Ae 

tl marine gravels, Ba 


Ormond Series. 

„.....,™, „..,...,. 

1 To ArBi Series. 

[ Mudslone, areillaeooussandsl 


Outoropi wilh obtarved strike and dip ^^ 

RECENT AND 1 Ftuvlatllo and estuar 
LATE PLEISTOCENE} Bc&ch depostts and 

nd S1II..I 1 
rl»1 ii.n) 1 


Outcropa witl) no obsorvGd strlko and dip. + 

Outcrops with vertical bedding f 

Outcrops with iioriionlal bedding "=' 

Walpaoi Series. 

"11 1 

FliKialllc, deltaic, nn 



Quarti veins Noae, 

Extinct Qaa Vents ♦ 

Faults ^^^ 


.._ ...^.C 



To itrcnitipt 

7iv BiiHfiin m>21.Gishm-r„- and WhatxiUUu Subdirinous. R,u,kuriuua Division. Ha,vkfx Buj Lniul District 





' ^- ; 

i^"^ i^xc/ 

--Japaponul \^j/* 

, lis ©564^-^ 



Otoriga, @ Ji i^ i^ 

/ / 



y' f i \ ; "" ® Kopantuati 



\ \ 

T -^-^J^ 



>" ( ^iA 'f 




1 , ^-«..JMMiS?Mii4 ' ■ 

^ . "^?^ 

j^ \ 


t^^^Mr Stn \ .^ 






•1 > 

y ^j^lt 



N 1 >^': 



r/ B 

^ ,*; 

^ if 


k wmwm wmmti 

'M I 


1: 6^360 

■ Reference to Geolo g ical Colours and Si ijins - 

Corrxpxled from. da.t<x obtained frvm OnLanda and Sun-ey Department , 
and m/m additional surveys by J: Bender eon, and M.Ongley 
of the Gwlogical Survay Branch of the Mines Department 
Geology "by jJfeTiderson and M'.Ongltr^. 

CompjMi and drawnhy G E-Harria. ISJ 8 

fOfmond Series. 
Limeslone. tufaccous 



Oulorofw Willi obsened slrike nnd dip 

Oulerops with no obwiired sirilie and dip .. 

Oulorops witii vertical bedding, 

Outcropi witii horliontal bedding. 

Quariz veins. .._ - 

Eirincl Oas Vents ♦ 

Faiills ^:-<^ 


To accompany BnJlpJ.ijhN921.Gisbome and,^.tutw SvhdivisioTts. Ruiiki'mara Dixision,. Hayvkc.^ Boa' Land Districf 

Roads shown Oius >c 

TVacita „ , 

jyi^crwmetrical Staiions-- „ „ _ C *^ 

Ed^esofBuBh „ „_^'^Vv/>rw 

Swajnp „__„_ *hdliL-* 

WcU^rRoLce^ „ „ _ *3^-~ ,. 

Waterfalla and Dottu „ „ _ ^i -^-r^ 

5/.rr.7tsr,s __..,_ _„_ ^ 

Sorclialea „. _ „_ « 


\mmih mm 

- Scale of Ciiains - 


H H h : 

CampUed ft-um. data, obtained from thx Lands and Survey Department , 
and from additional surveys byJKAdams.dHeTidersont^M.OngUy 
of the GtologixaX Survey Brarich of the Mirxes DepartmerU. 
Geoloffy hy JEAda.-ms. J.Henderson, (xruiM-Onglfry 

— Reference to Geological Colours e 

ndSi^ns — 

(Ormond Series. 

Llmoslono, turaceous 
\ mudalone. 

( Tai^hlll Ser/es. 

[Mudblone, argillaceou 


Outcrops wltli observed strike and 
Oulorops with no observed strike a 

Outcrops with vorlicnl bedding 

Outcrops with horizontal beddlng.- 

Quarlz veins 

Conglomerate bands 

£«tinct Oas VoMb 

ip A- 

1 dip-. V* 

RECENT AND iFluvliililB and eituirina graveli, tandt and sllls.l 1 1 
LATE PLEISTOCENE \ Beecll deooslta and rdl^nd hmrh^ Anrl«l li.ff I 1 1 

r r 1 f J / 

and calOBPWUs aandstono, and) 1 1 


WalpiOi Series. 

itfangalu Series. 




|Un,..,.„.. „«„.,., 8,„.„„d...„, .„a .I.,.1P 


CompJM and drawn byRJ&awfi^.ldOarAddztions &c hy Q.E.HaTrT£, 1917. 

To accompany BiiUeJirh N921, Gishonte ru\d V\liatatiUU' Subdivisions. Rfxukunuu-a^ Division, Ilawhes Bay Lund District 

T TI R Jl N 


Geological Survey Office, 

Wellington, 12th December, 1917. 

SlE, — 

I have the honour to transmit herewith Bulletin No. 20 (New 
Series) of the Geological Survey Branch of the Mines Department, 
entitled " The Geology of the Oamaru District, North Otago," and 
written by Professor James Park, of Otago University, Dunedin. It 
contains 124 pages of letterpress, and is illustrated by numerous plates, 
figures, and maps. 

The field-work in connection with the preparation of this bulletin 
was done by Professor Park, working single-handed, daring the summer 
of 1915-16. The results obtained are lucidly set forth in the following 
pages ; but it is desirable to state that although quite agreeing with 
most of the conclusions reached, I cannot follow Professor Park in all 
respects, more particularly in his views regarding the relative ages of 
the Oamaru and the Waitaki stones. 

Professor Park's report must be regarded as a very important con- 
tribution to the geological literature of New Zealand. In it special 
attention has been paid to the paheontology of the various stages of 
the Oamaruian System, and the lists of fossils given prove conclusively 
the Middle Cainozoic age of the whole of the system as developed in the 
Oamaru district. 

Practically the whole of the molluscan determinations recorded in 
this bulletin have been made by Mr. Henry Suter, of Christchurch, 
Consulting Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey. In like manner 
nearly all the Brachiopods have been named by Dr. J. Allan Thomson, 
Director of the Dominion Museum. 

I have the honour to be, 
Your obedient servant, 


Director, New Zealand Geological Survey. 

The Hon. W. D. S. MacDonald, 

Minister of Mines, Wellington. 


Letter of Transmittal 

Chapteb I. — General Information. 


General Description of District 

General Geological Structure 

Physiography . . 



Geological Literature . . . . . . 4 

Outline of Geology . . . . . . 9 

Classification . . . . . . . . 10 

Geological History of Uamaru District . . 10 


Chapter II. — Paleozoic Rooks. 


Economic Minerals 


Chaftsk III. — The Middle Cainozoic (Oamabuian System). 


The Oaniaruian .Succession 

Ago of the Oaniaruian 

Tabular Statement of Oaniaruian Strata 

Thickness of Strata 



.. 23 

Character of Rocks 

.. 23 

Conditions of Deposition 


Fauna and Flora 

.. 23 

Subdivision of the Oamaruiaa 



Chapter IV. — Noapaban Stage. 

Character of Rocks and Distribution 
Conditions of Deposition 




Chapter V. — Waiabekan Stage. 

Character and Distribution of Rocks 
Normal Marine Waiarekan 
Bortonian Fauna (Lower Waiarekan) 
Upper Marine Waiarekan 
Waiarekiin Pyroclastic Bods 

Section from Boatman's Harbour to Cape 

Wan brow 
Section at Boatman's Harbour 
Relationship of Cape Oamaru Tuffs to the 

Shirley Creek Section North of RifJo Butts. 
Confirmatory Sections 

Section at old Quarry, Awamoa Creek 

near Deborah 
Section at Trig. V, near Teschemaker's 

Section in Railway-cutting South of 

Section from Kakanui River to Totara 







Shirley Creek Section North of Rifle Butts 
— continued. 
Confirmatory Sections — continued. 
Section near Maheno Flour-mill 
Section from Big Hill to Landon Creek. . 
Sec-tion on East Bank of Lower End of 

Grant's ("reek 
Section on North Side of North-west 
Branch of Landon Creek 
Diatomaceous Earth -deposits intercalated in 
Waiareka Tuffs 
Confirmatory Sections 

Section at old Quarry a Mile South of 

Round Hill, Trig. K 
Section at Cormack's Siding . . 
Section at Big Flume Creek, Papakaio. . 
The Waiarekan Diatoms. . 
The Waiarekan Sponge-remains . . 








Chapter VI. — Ototaban Stage. 

General Description 
Relationship of Ototaran to Waiarokan 
Relationship of Ototaran to Hutchinsonian 
Oainaru 8tono . . 

Character of Oamaru Stone 

Origin of Oamaru Stone 

Fauna of Oamaru Stone 

Section at All Day Bay 

Section at South Bank of Kakunui Riv 

opposite Kakanui 
Confirmatory Sections 

Section in Railway-cutting near Deborah 
Section at Hutchinson's old Quarry, 

Oamaru . . 
Section at Devil's Bridge 
Section at Landon Creek, Main Branch 
Section at Brocknian's Hill 
Section at Tabletop Hill 
Section at Lower End of West Branch, 

Landon Creek 
Section in Waitaki Valley, Big Flume 
Creek . . 






Kakanui Tuffs and Breccias 

Fauna of Kakanui Tuffs and Breccias 
Section, Kakanui Lime-quarry to the Sea . . 
Confirmatory Sections 

Section from Beach below Trig. T to 

near Three Roads 
Section in Road-cutting Half-mile due 

East of Rocky Peak 
Section on Road North of Rocky 

Section at Teschemaker's old Quarry .'. 
Section at Totara old Stone-quarry 
Section at Weston old Stone-quarry 
Section at Trig. M, near Sebastopol 
Section on North Bank of Parson's 

Section in Road-cutting near Ardgowan 

Bridge over Oamaru Creek 
Section at Fortification Hill . . 
Volcanic Rocks overlying the Ototaran 
Section at Outer Breakwater 
Section in Chamberlin Street 



Chapter VII. — Hutchinsonian Stage. 

Conglomerate . . 

Fauna of Conglomerate 
Glauconitic Greensands . . 

Fauna of Glauconitic Greensands 
Glauconitic Sandstone 
Target (Jully Sections 

Section at Target Gully Shell- bed 
Section at Ardgowan Shell -bed 



Glauconitic Sandstone -cunlinucd. 
Upper Target Gully Sections 

Section on East Side of Target Gully . . 
Section across Target Gully above Town 
Sections South of Duntroon 
Section at (Jtiake 

Section on Left Bank of Waitaki River, 






Chapter VIII. — Awamoan Stage. 

Character of Rocks, and Distribution 

Fauna of Awamoan 
Section at All Day Bay 
Beds at Beach near Three Roads 
Beds at Mouth of Awamoa Creek 
Beds at Rifle Butts, South of Cape Wan 





Fauna of Awamoan — continued. 
Ardgowan Shell-bed 
Parson's Creek Beds 
Pukeuri Beds 
Target Gullv Shell-bed, Oamaru 



Chapter IX. — Oamaruian Mollusca and Bkachiopoda. 

Oamaruian Mollusca 
Summary of Molluscs . . 
Alphabetical List of (Genera and Species 
Bortonian Molluscs 
Upper Waiarekan Molluscs 
Ototaran Molluscs 







Oamaruian Mollusca — cunlin ued. 

Hutcliinsonian Molluscs 

Awamoan Molluscs 
Oamaruian Brachiopods . . 
General Conclusions 



High-level Gravels 

Chapter X. — Older Pleistocene Deposits. 


Raised Beaches . . 
42 ft. raised Beach 
12 ft. raised Beach 

Chapter XI. — Newer Pleistocene and Recent. 


Yellow Silts 

River and \'alley Gravels 



Chapter XII. — Economic. 

Stone for Harbour- works 
Building-stone . . 


I Rock Phosphate 






Nomenclature of Fossil Species. . 

.. 116 


Corals and Polyzoa (Bryozoa) . . 

.. 116 


.. 117 

Genus HeiniDtyris . . 

.. 117 

Genus Liothyrella . . 

.. 118 

3. Brachiopoda — continued. 
Genus Pachymagas 
Genus Xeuthyris 
Genus Terebratelki . . 






I. Thin-bedded Tuffs South of Cape Wanbrow 

Current- bedded Tuffs North of Cape Wanbrow . . 

IT. Section from near Rifle Butts Northward to Nag's Head 

Measured Section of Waiarekan Tuffs and Basalts from Boatman's Harbour to Cape Wanbrow 

III. Basaltic Dyke near Cape Wanbrow 

Fine Tuffs, well bedded, near Cape Wanbrow 

IV. Pillow-lava, surrounded by Fossiliferous Limestone and Caloite, Boatman's Harbour . . 
Pillow-lava, Boatman's Harbour, near Oamaru . . 

V. Nag's Head, near Shirley Creek. V^iew shows Fossiliferous Tuffs . . 

View near Shirley Creek, showing Conglomerate at Base of Oamaru Limestone and its Junc- 
tion with Waiarekan Tuffs 

VI. Oamaru Diatoms 

VII. Escarpment of Oamaru Stone running Seaward from Totara 
Railway-cutting South of Teschemaker's Railway-station 

VIII. Quarry of Oamaru Stone, Tesciiemaker's 
Gaj''s Oamaru Stone Quarry, near Weston 

IX. Fossiliferous Limestone Vein in Tachylitic Breccia near Breakwater, Oamaru 
Fossiliferous Limestone Vein in Tachylitic Breccia near Breakwater, Oamaru 

X. Hutchinson's old Limestone Quarry, Eden Street, Oamaru 
Hutchinson's old Limestone Quarry, Eden Street, Oamaru 

Olive-green Tuffs underlying Limestone are visible on left. 

XI. Target Gully Shell-lxul ; Awamoan 

XII. Pleistocene Silts near Breakwati-r, Oamaru 

Facing page 

1 • 
I '» 
1 " 

I 36 

; - 

I 52 

\ 56 






1. Section along Awamoko Gorge .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..22 

2. Section from Enfield, to the South-east . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 

3. Section from Cape Wanbrow to Rifle Butts . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 

4. Section across Boatman's Harbour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 

5. Section through old Stone-quarries, Upper Awamoa Creek, near Deborah . . . . . . 41 

6. Section of old Quarry-face, Upper Awamoa Creek, near Deborah, showing Pillow-lava (below 

Oamaru Stone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 

7. Section from Waiareka Creek Eastward to Alma- Weston Road . . . . . . . . 42 

8. Section of Railway-cutting immediately South of Teschemaker's Railway-station . . . . 42 

9. Section from Kakanui River to Totara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 

10. Section near Mahcno Mill, Kakanui Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 

11. Diagrammatic Section of Scarp-face 300 Yards South-east of Maheno Mill, Kakanui Valley .. 44 

12. Section of North Bank of Kakanui Rivtr, a Quarter of a Mile due West of Taipo Hill . . . . 44 

13. Section from Big Hill to Landon Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

14. Section on East Bank of Grants Creek, 400 Yards above Ardgowan Road Junction . . . . 45 

15. Transverse Section at Mouth of West Branch of Landon Creek . . . . . . 46 

16. Section at old Quarry a Mile South of Round Hill . . . . . . . . . . 48 

17. Section on North Side of Big Flume Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 

18. Section at North End of All Day Bay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 

19. Section along South Bank of Kakanui River opposite Kakanui Township . . . . . . 57 

20. Section Quarter-mile North of Deborah Siding . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 

21. Section at Hutchinson's Quarry, Eden Street, Oamaru . . . . . . . . . . 60 

22. Enlarged Section of Hutchinson's Quarry . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 

23. Section across Devil's Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 


FiGTJKES — continued. 

24. Section at Outlet End of Devil's Basin . . 

25. Section in Landon Creek, about Half a Mile above the Junction of the West Branch . . 

26. Section on East Side of Landon Creek 

27. Section across Landon Creek Gorge, at North End of Flume carrying Oainaru Borough Wate 

supply . . 

28. Section in Waitaki Valley at Mouth of Big Flume Creek, South-east Side 

29. Section from near Kakanui Quarry Northward to the Sea . . 

30. Section on Coast North of Kakanui Quarry 

31. Section in Road-cutting Half a Mile due East of Rocky Peak 

32. Section from Steps leading up to Lighthouse to Harbour Board Quarry, at End of Outer Break 


32a. Enlarged Section of Limestone Vein in Tachylitic Breccia at Steps leading up to Oamaru Light 
house . . . . . . .... 

33. Section along Chamberlin Street, opposite Oamaru Gardens 

34. Section 20 Yards South of Town Belt, near Target Gully Shell- bed . . 

35. Section at Target Gully Shell- bed 

36. Section at Ardgowan Shell- bed 

37. Section on East Side of Target Gully, Three-quarters of a Mile above Town Belt 

38. Section across Target Gully, One Mile above Town Belt 

39. Section Two Miles South of Duntroon] . . 

40. Section in Road -cutting, Pukeuri 






Map of Eastern Otago Division, showing Survey Districts 

Geological Map of Kakanui and Vicinity 

Greological Map of Papakaio and Portions of Awamoko and Oamaru Survey Districts 

Facing page 
At end 


Sheet of Sections : — 

(1.) Section along Line EF, Papakaio and Oamaru Survey Districts , 
(2.) Section along Line CD, Awamoko and Oamaru Survey Districts 
(3.) Section along Line AB, Oamaru Survey Districtj 

[>At end 


Bull-N" 20 






! Districts dealt wUh. tnj BuUe/in N°ZO 
BistrCct ,, , ,, 19 

Pukeuri Jn. 

C Savtidfirs 










10 TOWN 













N.R. Native Reserve 









General Description of District 

General CJeological Structure 


Coast- line 


Geological Literature . . 

Outline of Geology 

Classification. . 

(ieological History of Oamaru District 







During the progress of the field-work the writer was accompanied for a month by 
Mr. A. C. Giflord, M.A. (Cantab.), who gave valuable assistance in the measuring of 
the Oamaru - Cape Wanbrow and Deborah sections, in instrumental observations, and 
in fossil-collecting. Most of the photographs reproduced in this bulletin are the work of 
Mr. Gifford. For these and his generous help in the general conduct of the geological 
survey the writer wishes to make most grateful acknowledgment. 

The brachiopods were named by Dr. J. A. Thomson, D.Sc, Director of the 
Dominion Museum, and the Mollusca by Mr. Henry Suter, of Christchurch. In order 
to obtain consistency in nomenclature the whole of the material was submitted to these 
specialists, whose determinations give this report a value it could not otherwise possess. 
For undertaking this laborious work and carrying it out so well the writer wishes to 
record his thanks, as a small acknowledgment of their services so willingly given towards 
a better understanding of the Middle Cainozoic geology of New Zealand. 

The numerous analyses quoted in this bulletin, except where stated to the contrary, 
were furnished by Dr. J. S. Maclaurin, D.Sc, Dominion Analyst, to whom the writer 
has also to acknowledge his indebtedness. 

1 — Oamaru, 

General Description of District. 

The area dealt with in this report comprises a maritime belt bounded on the north 
by the Waitaki River and on the south by the Kakanui River. It includes the whole 
of the Oainaru Survey District, the greater portion of the Pa[)akaio Survey District, and 
a small portion of the Awamoko Survey District. 

In its original state the land was mostly covered with native grasses or stunted 
shrubs. The surface features consist of undulating meadow lands in the southern 
portion, and of a gently sloping dissected tableland in the northern. The soil is 
everywhere fertile, and most of it is arable. For the most part the land is divided 
into small holdings. Throughout the Dominion, North Otago is celebrated for its 
production of wheat, oats, and potatoes. 

The town of Oamaru, with a population of some six thousand inhabitants, is the 
chief port of North Otago. Duntroon, Peebles, Weston, Enfield, and Kakanui are 
merely small villages, each with fewer than two hundred and fifty inhabitants. 

The district is traversed by the Dunedin-Christchurch trunk railway ; and branch 
lines run to Kurow, Ngapara, and Tokarahi. The whole area is covered with a network 
of county roads ; and narrow settlement roads are numerous, well graded, and mostly 
in good order. 

General Geological Structure. 

If we disregard the Pleistocene and Recent deposits, which are superficial and 
have no tectonic significance, there are only two great formations represented in this 
region — namely, the Kakanuian, of older Palaeozoic age, and the Oamaruian, of Miocene 

The Kakanuian consists of mica-sehist and altered argillites. The Oamaruian begins 
with terrestrial beds, which are followed by a great thickness of marine strata. In the 
neighbourhood of Oamaru the marine beds are intercalated with considerable accumulations 
of basaltic ash and lava-flows, the result of contemporaneous volcanic eruptions. In 
no part of New Zealand are rocks of Miocene age so well developed as here, and 
nowhere in the Dominion do strata of this age contain so many fossiliferous horizons. 

The Miocene strata possess a general eastward dip at low angles ; and since denudation 
has been more active against the elevated shore-line than elsewhere, the oldest beds of 
the series are exposed in the western portion of the district, and the youngest in the 
eastern or seaward portion. 

Besides possessing a general easterly dip, the sheet of Miocene strata is folded along 
its eastward margin in two gentle corrugations — an anticline and a syncline. 

The anticline has been denuded to an area of low relief ; and its axis runs along 
the open down-like Waiareka Valley, drained by the Waiareka Stream, a tributary of 
the Kakanui River. Passing westward from the sea, the Waiareka anticline discloses 
in succession the lowermost members of the Miocene series, till eventually the basal 
conglomerates that rest on the Palaeozoic bed-rock are reached. 

The syncline forms the Awamoa basin, drained by the Awamoa Stream, which 
enters the sea a few miles north of the Kakanui River. The Awamoa syncline is a 
shallow fold, in which the higher members of the Miocene series have been preserved 
from destruction. To the we.stward the syncline gradually flattens and then closes. 


The dominant physiographic features of the Oamaru district are a dissected table- 
land, table-topped hills, and escarpment ridges. 

The dissected tableland extends from the coast near the town of Oamaru in a 
north-west direction to the Waitaki Valley ; and in this distance it rises by a gentle 


slope from 240 ft. to 500 ft. above the sea. It is in part an old peneplained land 
surface, but is mainly a raised ancient flood-plain of the Waitaki River. The Oamaru 
tableland is a faulted block, bounded on the north by the Waitaki Valley fault. For 
the most part it is covered with a sheet of Waitaki River gravel varying in thickness 
from almost nothing to 60 ft. 

The gravel rests on a highly eroded surface of the different members of the 
Oamaruian ; and along the coastal front is itself overspread by a thick mantle of 
newer Pleistocene silts, which gradually thins out going inland. 

In the Waitaki Valley between Peebles and Awamoko River the valley-wall is a 
low ridge of mica-schist, which rises through the gravel sheet and for some ten miles 
forms part of the tableland. In most places the schist is covered with only a thin 
scattered covering of fluviatile drift. Westward of Awamoko the mica-schist disappears 
below the lowermost members of the Oamaruian, and westward of the Maerewhenua is 
outflanked and isolated from the mica-schist area of Central Otago by the overlying 
argillites and greywackes of the Kakanui Mountains. 

This ridge of mica-schist is the truncated stump of a Palaeozoic mountain-chain 
that ran in a north-west - south-east direction. . It is a feature of peculiar interest, as 
it marks the site and shows the trend of a mountain-system long antecedent to the 
existing tectonic chains. The Kakanui, Kurow, Mount St. Mary, and Hakataramea 
mountains are faulted blocks of probably Late Tertiary date. The older Mesozoic rocks, 
of which they are mainly composed, contain no associated quartzose conglomerates ; 
and from this it may be postulated that the Fahrozoic mica-schist chain was already 
worn down to a feature of low relief, and perhaps submerged, before the deposition 
of the Mesozoic sediments. 

The thick layers of quartz sands, quartz gravels, and quartzose conglomerates at 
the base of the Oamaruian in this area were in part derived from the erosion of the 
mica-schist chain after its emergence from the sea towards the close of the Mesozoic 
epoch, and in part, or perhaps mainly, from the denudation of the Kakanui and 
Kurow mountains, which contain a great thickness of quartzites and quartzose rocks. 
It was probably during this period of erosion that the truncation of the mica-schist 
chain took place. Its final erosion was completed by the Waitaki River at a time 
when the land stood some 300 ft. lower than at present. 

The great mica-schist peneplain of Central Otago, on the broad surface of which 
rise long faulted blocks that form conspicuous table-topped block mountains, is itself the 
truncated stump of a massive Pala>ozoic chain that also ran transversely to the 
existing axial divide. What tectonic relationship existed between the ancient Manioto- 
tian chain and the Awaraokoan chain is not easy to discover. Probably both belonged 
to the same orographical system, the smaller Awamokoan being an outlying pucker or 
forefold of the dominating Maniototian chain. 

The Oamaru tableland is deeply dissected. Where the softer rocks of the Oamaruian 
are well developed there are many fine examples of valleys of erosion, .some of 
which possess beautiful forms that are the resultant of transverse and longitudinal 
catenary curves. But where the harder volcanic breccias, lavas, or limestones rise 
near the surface of the tableland, instead of broad valleys with gently sweeping curves 
we have narrow gorges with steep rocky walls. 

Above the level of the tableland near Cape Wanbrow there rises a monadnock 
of tuff, breccia, and basaltic lava. This pile of volcanic material stood in the ancient 
estuary of the Waitaki, and divided the stream into two main channels, one of which 
entered the sea to the north, and the other to the south-east near Kakanui. 

In the upper basin of the Oamaru Creek the Awamoan syncline is closed. From 
the saucer-shaped basin the Oamaru limestone rises gently to the south-west, west, 

1' -Oamaru. 

and north-west till it reaches the rim of the basin. Here the limestone ends abruptly, 
forming a line of steep escarpment. 

The limestone rim of the basin is breached at Cave Valley, at Teaneraki, west of 
Brockman's Hill, and between Brockman's Hill and Tabletop Hill. These breaches were 
made by streams which entered the basin when the land stood at a lower level, and 
before erosion on the landward side had cut down the Waiareka tuffs and quartzose 
conglomerates, whereby the Waiarekan anticline was worn down and the drainage 
diverted to the Kakanui River. 


From Oamaru a narrow coastal plain extends northward to the Waitaki Valley. 
This plain lies from 15 ft. to 25 ft. above sea-level, and is composed of Pleistocene silt. 
Since the surveys made in 1858 the sea has encroached on the land as much as .50 yards 
at places about half-way between Oamaru and Pukeuri. At the present time the 
sea face of the plain is everywhere steep, which may be taken as an evidence that 
erosion is relatively rapid. Fortunately, the toe of the silt-cliff is protected by an apron 
of coarse gravel drift piled up by high tides and easterly storms. As it is, the sea is 
gradually nibbling away the edge of the plain, the recession being most rapid in those 
portions subject to the sweep of the prevailing north-travelling ocean currents of the 
east coast. At such places measures will have to be taken in the near future to reduce 
the rate of erosion, as the encroachment, if unhindered, will lead to the destruction 
of much valuable land. 

Behind the narrow strip of coastal plain on which Oamaru stands, rises somewhat 
abruptly the frayed edge of the Oamaru tableland. At a time of no great antiquity 
the sea washed against the edge of the tableland ; and since the last uplift of the 
land it has unceasingly striven to cut away the narrow coastal plain that at present lies 
between it and its old shore-line. 

From Oamaru Breakwater southward to Kaiarero Creek, a distance of three miles, 
the coast is bounded by high precipitous cliffs carved in the tuffs, breccias, and lavas 
of Cape Oamaru. These volcanic rocks form a bold promontory which deflects the 
coastal currents seaward, thereby pPotecting from complete destruction the softer Tertiary 
rocks and Pleistocene deposits lying to the north of Oamaru. In a similar manner the 
promontory of tuft's and breccias at Kakanui has sheltered the softer rocks occupying 
the coast-line between Kakanui and Cape Oamaru. 

Where volcanic rocks occupy the the sea has worn away the edge of the 
land into a wide platform or plane of marine erosion. This rock-platform slopes gently 
towards the sea ; and a wide expanse of it may be seen at low water between Cape 
Wanbrow and Oamaru Breakwater, and also on the coast a mile north of Kakanui. 

A few hundred yards north of Kaiarero Creek, at Cape Wanbrow, and again 
between Boatman's Harbour and Oamaru, there is a raised beach resting on an uplifted 
plane of marine erosion lying about 12 ft. above high-water mark. On the raised beach 
rests more or less talus, composed mainly of Pleistocene silt that has trailed down the 
adjoining slopes. 

Geological Literature. 

The first notice of the geology of the Oamaru district is contained in a paper by 
Dr. Gideon Algernon Mantell, F.R.S., published in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society in 1850.* The notes and collections of moa and other bird bones, of rock 

* " Notice of the Remains of the Dinomis and other Birds, and of Fossils and Rock Specimens, recently 
collected by Mr. Walter Mantell in the Middle Island of New Zealand ; with Additional Notes on the Northern 
Island. By Gideon Algernon Mantell. Esq., LL.D., F.R.8., F.G.S., &c. With Note on Fossiliferous Deposits 
in the Middle Island of New Zealand, by Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S., &c."' Quart. Jour. Geol. Sor., vol. vi, 
1850, pp. 319-343 ; 2 plates, 7 figs. 

specimens, fossil shells, Polyzoa, and Foraminifera that form the basis of the paper were 
made by the Hon. Walter Mantell in 1848, during a journey from Kaiapoi, in Canter- 
bury, to the Molyneux River, in South Otago, as Government Commissioner for the 
settlement of Native land claims. The geological sketch-map of this long stretch of 
coast-line, with which the paper is illustrated,* is the first geological map of any portion 
of New Zealand. The formations distinguished by Mr. Mantell in the area lying between 
the Waitaki and Kakanui rivers are, — 

Tertiary blue clay [= Awamoan]. 
Ototara limestone [= Oamaru stone]. 
Quartz conglomerate. 

He records the occurrence of the volcanic tuff at Kakanui Point,f and mentions 
that it contains a great variety of crystalline minerals, as hornblende, augite, garnets, &c. 

In 1859 Professor Huxley, F.R.S., described some bones of a small whale and of a 
gigantic penguin from the Kakanui limestone, sent to him by Mr. Walter Mantell. 
Referring to the age of the Tertiary rocks at Kakanui he says, J " The marine shells 
contained in the blue day [All Day Bay clay] and the limestone [Kakanui] are different 
from those now living in the seas of New Zealand. It would appear, therefore, that 
the Kakanui limestone is at least of Pliocene age, if not, as Mr. Mantell suspects, mucli 

In 1863 Sir James Hector (at that time Provincial Geologist for Otago), in his 
narrative of his explorations on the west coast of Otago, correlates the Waiau Tertiary 
limestone with the Oamaru and Caversham limestones. § 

In 1864 Sir James Hector produced a manuscript geological map of Otago and 
Southland on which the distribution of the Paheozoic and Tertiary formations is shown. 
This map was never published, but the original is in the Otago Museum, and there is 
a copy in the Dominion Museum, Wellington. On this map the Oamaru Tertiary rocks 
are referred to the Miocene. 

In 1865 a collection of fossils from the tuft's and marine strata of Cape Oamaru, 
exhibited by the Otago Geological Survey in the New Zealand Exhibition|| held at 
Dunedin in that year, was referred to the " Cpper Marine Pliocene(?)." 

In 1869 Mr. Charles Traill made a large collection of fossil shells from the blue 
clays^ overlying the Oamaru stone at the Rifle Butts, south of Cape Wan brow. He 
identified seventy-seven genera, of which he believed fifty-one to be extinct and twenty- 
six perhaps alive. Probably the word " genera " used by him should be read as 
" species."' When referring to the age of the beds he believed that the fossils indicated 
a greater antiquity than the Pliocene. 

In 1870 Sir James Hector, then Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand, 
in his catalogue of the Colonial Museum, classified the Tertiary rocks of the Dominion 
in three groups — 

B. Upper or Struthiolaria beds. 

C. Middle or Cucullaea beds. 

D. Lower or Ototara Series. 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. vi. 18.50, p. :J20, tijj. 1. 

t Ibid., p. 324, figs. :3 and 4. 

J Thomas H. Huxley, F.R.8. : " On a Fossil Bird and a Fossil Cretacean from New Zealand." Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xv, 18.)9, pp. 670-77 ; I plate. 

§ Otago Provincial Gor^iimeut Gazette, .5th Nov., 1863. 

II New Zealand Exhibition : .Juror's Report."" and Awards, 1865, p. 263. 

^Charles Traill: ' On the Tertiary Series of Oamaru and Moeraki." Trani. X.Z. Inst., vol. ii, 1870, 
pp. 166-169. 


In 1871 the same wrriter, in a paper* describing the discovery of some bones of the 
gigantic fossil penguin Palceeudyptes antarcticus Huxley in the Cobden limestone, classified 
that rock as belonging to the Ototara Series — the uppermost member of a group of 
strata to which he applied the term " Cretaceo-Tertiary." 

In 1872 Captain F. W . Hutton published a synopsisf of the younger formations of 
New Zealand, in which the Ototara group of beds is referred to the Upper Eocene. 

In 1875 Captain Hutton, at that time Provincial Geologist for Otago, in his official 

report on the geology of Otago, referred the Oamaru Formation to the Lower Miocene, 

and subdivided it into two groups — 

_ . (Trelissic group. 

Oamaru if ormation \ ^. 

(Ototara group. 

The Ototara groupj comprised (a) the Oamaru limestone, and (b) the overlying 
" hard crystalline shelly limestone "' — the Kakanui limestone of this report. His Trelissic 
group§ consisted of conformably overlying calcareous conglomerates, green and yellow 
sandy clays in places interstratified with volcanic rocks, " the whole being again covered 
with limestone." 

In 1877 Mr. Alexander McKay, F.G.S., at that time a field geologist of the New 
Zealand Geological Survey, made extensive collections of fossils in the Oamaru and 
Waitaki districts. || At the same time he conducted a geological reconnaissance of the 
region lying between the Waitaki and Kakanui rivers, and produced a geological map on 
which he subdivided the Tertiary marine strata into five groups^ — 

Lower Miocene . . . . 1. Awamoa and Pareora beds. 

Upper Eocene . . . . 2. Hutchinson Quarry and Mount Brown beds. 

(3. Ototara limestone. 
Cretaceo-Tertiary . . 4. Tuffs, volcanic rocks, and greensands. 

15. Coal-beds, grits, &c. 

In this report McKay mentions all the salient geological features of the district : and it 
is noteworthy that the succession of the Tertiaries recognized by him at this time has 
never been seriously challenged. He notes that the Hutchinson Quarry limestone represents 
a calcareous horizon overlying the Ototara limestone, that the volcanic tuffs and basalts 
in the neighbourhood of the town of Oamaru are associated with the Hutchinson Quarry 
limestone, and that the Waiareka tuffs underlie the Ototara limestone. 

McKay's assignment of a Cretaceo-Tertiary age to the Ototara limestone and underlying 
Tertiary beds at Oamaru was not the result of a careful review of the palsontological 
evidence ; and there is no internal evidence in his rej^ort to show the reasons for referring 
these beds to that hyphenated age. We can only suppose that this age-name was 
adopted in deference to the official chronological cla.ssification** of the Geological Survey, 
which ascribed this age to rocks at Waipara and Weka Pass that were believed to be the 
correlatives of the Oamaru rocks. 

From 1877 to 1887 there was considerable geological activity in and around the Oamaru 
district. Then followed a long period during which there was an almost complete cessation 

* James Hector, F.R.S. : " On the Remains of a Gigantic Penguin [Palmeudyptes antarcticus Huxley) 
from the Tertiary Rocks on the West Coast of Nelson.'" Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. iv, 1872, pp. 341-346. 

t F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. : ' Synopsis of the Younger Formations of New Zealand." Rep. Geol. ExjAor. 
during 1871-72, No. 7, 1872, pp. 182-184. 

J" Report on the Geology and Goldfields of Otago," 1875, pp. 46-47. 

\lbid., p. 47. 

II A. McKay : " Oamaru and Waitaki Districts." Rep. Oeol. Explor. during 1876-77, No. 10, 1877, 
pp. 41-66 (with map). 

^Ibid., Map facing p. .50. (Scale, 1 in. = 4 miles.) 

♦*" Classification adopted bv Geological Survey Department." Appendix I, Rep. Geol. Explor. during 
1877-78, No. 11, 1878, pp. 189-198. 

Plate I. 

A. C. Gifford, p/ioln.] 

A. TiiiN-nKDDEi) Tl"kf:< SouTii Or Cape Waxbuow. 


A. C. Uifford, iihoOr] 


Geol. Bull. No. 20. \ [To face page 6. 

of work dealing with the stratigraphical and palseontological side of New Zealand geology. 
This period of inactivity was broken by the author when he undertook, in 1903 and 1904, 
the field-work connected with his investigation of the marine Tertiary rocks of Otago and 
Canterbury.* Since 1905 much valuable information relating to the Middle and Lower 
Tertiary rocks of New Zealand has appeared in the bulletins of the Geological Survey, 
and in papers published in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute and elsewhere. 

The reports and papers published since 1877 that have a bearing on the geology or 
palaeontology of the Oamaru district are given below — 

1880. Tenison-Woods, J. E. : " Corals and Bryozoa of the Neozoic Period in New 

Zealand." i plates. Wellington, 1880. 
1882. McKay, Alexander : " Geology of the Waitaki Valley and Parts of Vincent and 

Lake Counties." Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1881, No. 14, pp. 56-92. 
1882. McKay, Alexander : " On the Younger Deposits of the Wharekuri Basin and the 

Lower Waitaki." Ihid.. pp. 98-106. 
1882. Hector, James : ' Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand." Ihid., 

pp. 118-128. 

1884. McKay, Alexander: "On the Nortli-eastern District of Otago." Rep. Geol. Explor. 

during 1883-84, No. 16, pp. 45-66. 

1885. Hutton, F. W. : "" Sketch of the Geology of New Zealand." Quart. Jour. Geol. 

Soc. Lond., vol. xliv, pp. 191-220. 

1886. Hutton, F. W. : " The Molluaca of the Pareora and Oamaru Systems of New 

Zealand." Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W.. ser. 2, vol. i, pp. 205-237. 

1886. Hector, James : Outline of New Zealand Geology. With coloured geological map 

and numerous figures ; p. 98. 
1886-87. Grove, E., and Sturt, G. : " On Deposit of Diatomaceous Earth at Cormack's 
Siding, near Oamaru, N.Z." Jour. Quekett Micro. Club, 16th Sept., 1886 ; 
17th Jan., 1887 ; 18th May, 1887 ; and 19th Aug., 1887. 

1887. Hutton, F. W. : " Geology of the Country between Oamaru and Moeraki." 

Trans. N Z. Inst., vol. xix, pp. 415-430. 
1887. McKay, Alexander : ■ On the Younger Secondary and Tertiary Formations of 

Eastern Otago — Moeraki to Waikouaiti." Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1886 87, 

No. 18, pp. 1-23. 
1887. Hutton, F. W. : " On the Greensands of the Waihao Forks." Trans. N.Z. Inst., 

vol. XX, pp. 264-267. 
1889. de Lautour, H. A. : '" On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous Deposit near Oamaru." 

Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi, pp. 293 311 ; 6 figs. 
1889. Grunow, A. : " Some Critical Remarks by Herr A. Grunow on the Oamaru Diatom 

Papers of Messrs. Grove and Sturt." Jour. Quekett Micros. Club, vol. iii, ser. 2, 

p. 387, No. 24, April, 1889. 
1891. Ettingshausen, C. von: "Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fossil Flora of 

New Zealand." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxiii, pp. 237-310 ; 9 plates. 
1891. Hinde, G. J., and Holmes, W. Murton : "' On the Sponge-remains in the Lower 

Tertiary Strata near Oamaru, Otago, New Zealand." Ldnn. Soc. Jour., Zoology, 

vol. xxiv, pp. 178-262 ; 9 plates. 
1900. Hutton, F. W. : " The Geological History of New Zealand." Trans. N.Z., 

vol. xxxii, pp. 159-183. 

* James Park : " On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterburj', with Special Reference to the 
Relations e.nisting between the Pareora and Oamaru Series." Tran.^. X.Z. InM., vol. xxxvii, 1905, 
pp. 489-551 ; 1 plate, 17 figs. 


1904. Boehm, G. : " Uber Tertiarc Brachiopodon von Oainaru, Sudinsel Neuseeland." 

Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellnch. Ivi, Brief!. Mitt. 146-150 ; 1 plate. 

1905. Park, James : " On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago and Canterbury, with Special 

Reference to the Relations existing between the Pareora and Oaniaru Series." 
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii, pp. 489-551 ; 1 plate, 17 figs. 
1905. Park, James : " Description of a New Species of Pecten [Pecleii hutloni] from 
the Oamaru Series."' Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii, p. 485. 

1905. Park, James : " On the Geology of North Head, Waikouaiti, and its Relation 

to the Geological History of Dunedin." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvi, 
pp. 418-430 ; 1 fig. 

1906. Thomson, J. A. : " The Gem Gravels of Kakanui ; with Remarks on the Geology 

of the District" [Otago]. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxviii, pp. 482-495. 

1907. Thomson, J. A. : " Inclusions in some Volcanic Rocks " [Dolerite ; Portrush (Co 

Antrim) and Kakanui (N.Z.)]. Geol. Mag., Dec. v, vol. iv, pj). 490-500. 

1908. Thomson, J. A. : " Fossils from Kakanui." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xl, pp. 309-332 ; 

2 plates. 

1909. Park, James : " Outline of the Geology of New Zealand." N.Z. Mines Record, 

Feb., Mar., April, 1909. 

1910. Park, James : Geology of New Zealand. Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch, 

N.Z. 27 plates, 145 figs., and coloured geological map of New Zealand. 

1911. Marshall, P.; Speight, R. ; and Cotton, C. : "The Younger Rock Series of New 

Zealand." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xliii, pp. 378-407. 
1911. Park, James: "The Unconformable Relationship of the Lower Tertiaries and 
Upper Cretaceous of New Zealand." Geol. Mag. (N.S.), Dec. v, vol. viii, 
pp. 539-549 ; 4 figs. (This is a reply to the paper on " The Younger Rock 
Series of New Zealand," by Marshall, Speight, and Cotton. Trans. N.Z. 
Inst., vol. xliii, 1911.) 

1911. Marshall, P.: "New Zealand and Adjacent Islands."" Handbuch der rt'ijiowilr-n 

Geologie, Band vii, Abt. 1, pp. 22-23, &c. Heidelberg. 

1912. Speight, R. : "A Preliminary Account of the Lower Waipara Gorge." Trans. 

N.Z. Inst., vol. xliv, p. 227. 
1912. Marshall, P. : Geology of New Zealand. With 112 figs, and coloured geological 

map of New Zealand. 
1912. Marshall, P. : " The Younger Rock Series of New Zealand." Geol. Mag., July, 

1912, pp. 314-320 ; 2 figs. 
1912. Thomson, J. A. : " On a Discovery of Fossils in the Wcka Pass Stone, New 

Zealand."' Geol. Mag., July, 1912, p. 3.35. 
1912. Park, James : " Tertiary Fossils in the Weka Pass Stone, New Zealand" Geol. 

Mag., July, 1912, p. 336. 

1912. Park, James : " The Supposed Cretaceo-Teitiary Succession of New Zealand." 

Geol. Mag., Nov., 1912, pp. 491-498 ; 3 figs. 

1913. Withers, T. H. : " Some Miocene Cirripedes of the Genera Hexelasma and 

Scalpellum from New Zealand." Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1913 [published 

September, 1913]. [In this paper the author describes a Scalpellum from 

Takiroa (now called Duntroon).] 
1913. Marshall, P. : " The Cretaceo-Tertiary of New Zealand." Geol. Mag., June, 1913, 

■pp. 286-287. 
1913. Park, James : " Classification of Younger Stratified Formations of New Zealand." 

Geol Mag., Oct., 1913, pp. 438-440. 
1913. Marshall, P., and Uttley, G. H. : " Some Localities for Fossils at Oamaru." 

Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlv, pp. 297-307 ; 2 figs. 

1914. Morgan, P. G. : " Unconformities in the Stratified Rocks of the West Coast of 

the South Island." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlvi, pp. 270-278. 
1914:. Marshall, P., and Uttley, G. H. : '• Localities for Fossils near Oainaru." 'Trans. 

N.Z. Inst., vol. xlvi, pp. 279-280. 
1914. Thomson, J. A. : " Classification and Correlation of the Tertiary Rocks." Geol. 

Survey Branch : Eighth Ann. Rep. (N.S.), Appendix C.~2, Parliamentary Papers, 

pp. 123, 124. 

1914. Thomson, J. A. : " Coal Prospects of the Waimate District, South Canterbury." 

Ibid., pp. 158-162. 

1915. Marshall, P. : " Cainozoic Fossils from Oamaru." Trans. N.Z., vol. xlvii, 

pp. 377-387. 
1915. Morgan, P. G. : " Weka Pass District." Geol. Survey Brunch : Ninth Ann. Rep. 

(N.S.), Appendix C.-2, Parliamentary Papers, pp. 90 93. 
1915. Morgan, P. G. : " Stone for Oamaru Harbour Works." Ibid., p. 96. 
1915. Thomson, J. A. : " Prospects of finding Stone Suitable for Harbour-works in 

the Oamaru District." Ibid., pp. 98 100. 

1915. Thomson, J. A. : " Brachiopod Morphology : Types of Folding in tlie Terebra- 

tulacea." Geol. Mag. (N.S.), Dec. vi, vol. ii, pp. 71-76. 

1916. Thomson, J. A. : " On Stage Names applicable to the Divisions of the Tertiary 

in New Zealand." Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlviii, pp. 28-40. 
1916. Uttley, G. H. : "" The Geology of the Neighbourhood of Ivakanui."" Trans. 

N.Z. In.^t., vol. xlviii, pp. 19-27. 
1916. Uttley, G. H. " The Brachiopod Localities of the Oamaru District." [MS.) 


(K'TLixii OF Geology. 

The oldest rocks are phyllites and mica-schists, probably of Early J'ahcozoic age. 
On the liighly denuded surface of these ancient rocks there rests a great succession 
of Middle Tertiary strata belonging to the Oamaruian System. The lowermost rocks 
of the Oamaruian are gravels and .sands that contain a bed of fireclay and 
a seam of lignite. In their uppermost horizon the gravels have been consolidated by 
the infiltration of chalybeate waters into limonitic conglomerate. In .some places the 
quartzose sands are compacted into soft sandstones. 

These quartzose drifts and conglomerates constitute the lignitic measures of the 
Oamaruian. Overlying them conformably is a great succession of marine sediments — 
arenaceous, argillaceous, and calcareous -with which are intercalated beds of volcanic 
mud and ash and flows of basaltic hiva. The jjynxlastic deposits are of great 
thickness near the centres of volcanic activity ; but they thin out rapidly along the 
the radii diverging from the foci. 

Volcanic activity began at the close of the lignitic period, and (•()ntinu('<l inter- 
mittently till near the beginning of the Hutchinsonian stage. And while showers of 
ash slowly piled up a great thickness of pyroclastic material around the centres of 
eruption, the deposition of true marine sediments continued uninterruf)tedly on that 
portion of the sea-floor lying between the area aflPected by volcanic activity and the 
ancient shore-line. At the sources of Oamaru Creek the Waiareka tuffs rest directly 
on the quartzose lignitic series ; while between the sources of the Waiareka and the 
Kakanui River, and also in the Waitaki Valley near Black Point, we find the normal 
succession of marine sandy beds and clays following the lignitic series, and passing 
upward to the base of the Ototara limestone. The volcanic vents were situated on 
the floor of the sea, many miles seaward of the old shore-line. Contemporaneous 
organic remains occur in many of the consolidated ash-beds, which may be taken as 


an evidence that the volcanic activity took the form of many small outbursts of 
fragmentary material, with periodic greater displays accom})anied by the effusion of 

For two long periods and several short periods there was a comjjiete cessation 
of activity ; and during these times marine deposits, with their marine life, encroached 
on the volcanic area. 

The sporadic deposits of pyroclastic material which are intercalated with the 
middle Oamaruian have a disturbing influence on the succession of the purely marine 
sediments ; but this disturbance has its compensations.' During the period of quietude 
that followed the outbursts of the Waiarekan stage, " coral reefs "* established themselves 
on the platform of Waiarekan tuffs, and outside the volcanic zone their growth continued 
without interruption till the Hutchinsonian. But while the polyzoans flourished in the 
clear waters of the outer sea, volcanic activity began again in the Oamaru and Kakanui 
areas, and soon provided conditions which led to the invasion of these areas by a rich 
molluscan fauna. Hence it is that portions of the Ototaran are represented near the 
centres of eruption by contemporaneous tuffs containing the remains of a varied 
molluscan life. These molluscs enable us to compare the life of Ototaran times with 
that of the Awamoan and Waiarekan. 

On the deeply eroded surface of the different members of the Oamaruian there 
rests a thick sheet of fiuviatile gravel. Over this drift lies an irregular covering of 
fine yellow silt. 

Table of Fortnations. 


Sands and gravels forming river-flats. 

Newer Pleistocene 


(a.) Yellow silts. 


(6.) Raised beaches. 

Older Pleistocene 

High-level gravels and sands. 


1 Awamoan 

Soft sandstones, sandy clays, blue clays, and shelly sands. 



(a. ) Calcareous sandstone, often glauconitic ( = Waitaki stone). 


(6.) Greensands. 


(c.) Conglomerate (basaltic near Oamaru). 

Kakanui limestone (with layers oP tuff in volcanic 




Oamaru limestone (intercalated towards close with tuffs con- 

Miocene (Oamaruian) • 

taining rich molluscan fauna between Deborah and Kaka- 


nui ; and around Oamaru replaced by lavas and tuffs). 



(a.) Marly clays and sandstones . . | Represented by 



(b.) Sandstones (often micaceous) with 1 Waiareka tuffs 
hard nodules and lenses contain- i** and lavas in vol- 



ing rich molluscan fauna ,i canic area. 


Quartzose conglomerates and sands ; sandstones and fire- 

clay with lignite. 




Mica-schist and phyllites. 

Geological History of Oamaru District. 

By " geological history " is meant the attempt to depict the distribution of the 
land and water at the different epochs of geological time, to reconstruct the outline 
and physical features of the dry land, to clothe the land with vegetation, and people 
the seas with life, and lastly, from a study of the character of the contemporary 
vegetation and marine life, to indicate the probable climatic conditions prevailing at the 

* The Oamaru stone and similar limestones have frequently been referred to as "coralline." More 
correctly they are bryozoan or polyzoan rocks, but the term " coral reef " maj' occasionally be used on later 
pages as a familiar term in a conventional sense. 

f The " ng " is nasal, and the word is prouounced almost as " Naparan." 


The problem of reconstruction is always difficult. Even in Eurasia and North 
America, where a vast amount of data has been gathered in the past century, the 
pictures are, at best, dim outlines in which the forms are shadowy and often unreal. 
The reasons for this unreality are in part due to the wide gaps in the geological 
record, and in part to the relative srnallness of the existing dry-land areas compared with the 
size of the ocean basins. 

In such matters as the simple principles of erosion and formation of stratified 
rock.s we are on sure ground, for we are able to apply present condition.^ to the past ; 
but when we come to investigate the causes and directions of crustal movements and 
earth-folding we immediately find ourselves in difficulties. On all sides we see the 
effects of folding and crustal dislocations. We soon discover that at one epoch the 
axis of the folded chains persistently followed a well-defined course that later research 
proves to have no apparent relationshi]) to the major folds of the next epoch. 

The existing crustal folds and structural dislocations took place before man appeared 
on the earth ; and so far as the limited span of human life is concerned, the forces 
to which the present structure is due may be said to have expended themselves. 
Perhaps they are not expended, but only dormant. At any rate, all we are conscious 
of are the effects spread out before us like a vast .stereotype. 

Our inability to unravel the dynamics of rock-folding is due in no small measure 
to our profound ignorance of the earth's subcrustal condition. There is a good deal 
of evidence in favour of the belief that the dynamics of earth-movements may be 
governed partly by the conditions existing below the lithosphere, and partly by the 
disturbance of the isostatic balance arising from the denudation of mountain-folds, 
therebv lightening the load, and the transportation of the waste to the ocean-floor 
along the fringe of the land. In this way the load is increased on a narrow segment. 
The overloaded segment will gradually sink, and the subsidence will be compensated by 
a corresponding uplift of the adjacent dry land. 

The effects resulting from a disturbance of the isostatic balance are well known in 
coal-mining. Take the case of a flat-lying seam of coal being worked at a considerable 
depth below the surface. Before the breaking - out of the coal begins there is no 
movement in the rocks lying above or below the seam, since a condition of isostatic 
equilibrium exists. When the galleries are driven the static balance is disturbed, 
and an additional load is thrown on the pillars. If the (;oal is strong and the floor 
weak the pillars sink, and the floor of the galleries rises, producing what miners call 
" creep." The rise of the floor continues till the galleries are filled, when static 
equilibrium is once more established. 

Rock-folding must have taken [)lace under the pressure of an external load of 
sufficient magnitude to prevent rupture during the progress of the movement. By 
the removal of a portion of the external load by denudation the stresses in the arches 
of the rock-folds would express themselves in the rupture and dislocation of the com- 
ponent rocks. 

It is certain that the-pile-of strata composing the great axial chain of folded moun- 
tains of New Zealand could not be derived from the denudation of a small oceanic island 
of like size. Only land-masses of continental dimensions could provide the vast amount 
of detrital material represented in this and other great folded chains of the globe. 
The material is marine, estuarine, and deltaic ; hence we know that each of the 
existing chains stands on what was at one time a sea-floor that ran along the shores 
of some pre-existing land-mass. 

Many of the problems met wath in the investigation of the geological history 
of New Zealand are almost ineobxble. The conditions existing in the Palaeozoic 
and Mesozoic epochs- are veiled in obscurity, this arising from the circumstance that 


New Zealand is merely an elongated residual block of a greater land now submerged 
below the sea. The difficulties that beset the reading of the geological history of 
New Zealand are multiplied many-fold when we come to deal with a corner of that 
terrain ; and it may be sometimes necessary to travel fartiier afield to gather the 
data needed for the connected story, and so it is now : the evidence relating to 
the earlier geological history of Oamaru is to be found outside the limits oi the area 
dealt with in the present report. 

In both form and size the New Zealand of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic was 
constantly changing, and it was not till the Middle Cainozoic that the land assumed 
the general outline of its present form. Since then the story becomes clearer and 
clearer as we approach the present day. 

Before the beginning of the Cainozoic the history is obscure, and some of it 
cannot be written, through the lack of data. Many of the geological records have been 
destroyed by denudation or buried, and some never existed in the present New 
Zealand terrain. In some measure the geological history of the Oamaru terrain is 
the story of a great portion of the South Island. 

It is certain that the most ancient rocks in north-east Otago do not appear at 
the surface. The occurrence of fragments of gneiss and other crystalline schists 
together with ultra-basic eruptive rocks of an ancient type in the Kakanui tuffs and 
breccias of the Ototaran stage, hrst recorded by Thomson* in 1905, affords conclusive 
evidence that a complex of older Palaeozoic rocks exists below the Cainozoic strata 
in the coastal region of Oamaru. If these crystalline schists bear the same relation- 
ship to the Awamokoan schists of the Waitaki Valley as the crystalline schists of 
south-west Otago bear to the Maniototian schists of Central Otago, then the buried 
crystalline rocks at Kakanui are older than the Awamokoan schists. 

Triassic conglomerates largely composed of granite, gneiss, and crystalline .schists 
occur in the East Cape district of the North Island, near Otorohanga in the King- 
country, and at Kawhia. These occurrences, with those known in the South Island, 
would lead to the belief that the basal rocks of both Islands are a complex of ancient 
crystalline rocks arranged in a great north-east - south-west synclinal fold, in the trough 
of which the later Palseozoic and older Mesozoic rocks are entangled and folded. In 
this view New Zealand is merely a faulted block mountain standing on a platform 
of ancient crystalline rocks, of which only a remnant now remains at the surface, as in 
south-west Otago, and bounded on the edge of the submarine shelf by powerful faults. 

The oldest rocks in North Otago are the mica-schists that form the truncated 
ridge Iving between Big Hill and Black Point. The mica-schists are well exposed at 
Georgetown and in the Awamoko Gorge. They strike noith-west - south-east. — that is, 
parallel with the axis of the ridge — and dip north-east. In general character and ajjpear- 
ance these schists are indistinguishable from the Maniototian mica-schists of Central 
Otago. North-westward they disappear below the Middle Tertiary Oamaruian. 

Between Kurow and Otekaieke rivers there appear flaggy mica-schists, perhaps some- 
what less altered than the Awamoko schists. Following these, on the east and north- 
east side of the Kakanui Mountains, there are red and green micaceous quartzites.f West 
of these, and lying on them conformably, are rocks of a subschistose character that 
appear to have been originally slaty breccias and sandstones. The higher portions 
of these altered rocks are associated with blue fissile slates near Otepopo, and with 
a hard crystalline limestone near Dunback.J 

* J. A. Thomson : Trans. N.Z. InM., vol. xxxviii, 1906, p. 492. 

t A. McKay : Rep. Geol. Explor. during 1S83-H4, No. 16, 1884, p. .32. 

% A sample of hard blue limestone resembling that from Dunback was sent to the author in the early 
part of 1917. It was stated to come from Block X, Maerewhenua Survey District, 


In the section across the Kurow Mountains, in the line of Mount St. Mary, we 
have, at the foot of the range, pale grey and blue silky phyllites.* To the westward 
these are overlain by a great thickness of flaggy quartzites and altered argillites 
that are followed, in ascending order, by altered greywacke and beds of altered pale- 
green aphanitic breccia containing thin bands of red and green slaty shale, which are 
in many places streaked with jasperoid segregations. Above these lie blue silky 
slates that alternate with thin quartz folia. f 

Overlying a great tliickness of this singular slate and quartz series there occurs 
a thin-bedded siliceous sandstone, almost a quartzite, alternating with thin quartz 
folia. Above these lies the Mount St. Mary Series, consisting of coarse gritty sand- 
stones, conglomerates, slaty breccias, slaty and flaggy argillites slightly micaceous 
and containing two fossiliferous bands. 

The strike throughout is about north-west - south-east and the dip south-west. At 
the foot of the range the angle of dip of the more altered rocks is 65° or more, but 
to the westward the inclination gradually flattens till at the foot of Mount St. Mary 
it is not more than 35°. Higher up the slopes of Mount St. Mary the- angle of 
dip increases, and near the summit of the range is 60°. 

The total thickness of rocks exposed in this fine section is not less than 10,000 ft., 
and is probably much greater. The whole of this pile of strata appears to form a 
continuous and conformable succession, all the members of which are more or less 
altered, the metamorphism being greatest at the base of the succession. 

The highly altered schistose rocks at the base of the succession constitute the 
'■ Kurow Schists "' of McKay, the " Kakanui Series " of Hector, and the " Arahura 
Series " of Bell and Eraser. J The aphanitic sandstones and breccias, red and green 
slaty shales, and greywackes probably represent the Te Anau or Maitai Series of the 
old Geological Survey, now known to be of Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous 
age. The Mount St. Mary Series is probably Tria.ssic or Permo-Triassic. 

The relationship of the mica-schi.sts forming the worn-down Awamoko ridge to 
the Kakanuian cannot be determinetl in this terrain, as the two formations do not, 
so far as known at present, come in contact with one another ; but in other parts of 
Otago the Kakanuian appears to be conformable to and to pass imprneptibly into the 
more highly altered Maniototian schists. 

The Awamoko mica-schists have been so highly altered that it is impo.ssible to 
discover what was the character of the material of which they were originally formed. 
The material may have been a succession of nmds and sands, or of pyroclastic tuffs 
and breccias, acidic in composition. The composition of the overlying Kakanui, Maitai, 
and Mount St. Mary series presents less difficulty. The original constituent materials 
were clays, .sands, and gravels, with perhaps the exception of the aphanitic breccias 
of the Maitaian, which may possibly have been pyroclastic. 

There are only two known fossiliferous horizons in the Mount St. Mary Series. 
No fossils have been found in the underlying altered rocks. H they ever existed 
they have been obliterated by the metamorphism the original .sediments have undergone. 
The presence of the Dunback limestone in the Maitaian may be accepted as an 
evidence that the younger Palaeozoic sea was neither limelcss nor without life. Possibly 
this rock mav mark the site of a Palaeozoic coral reef. 

* J. Park : "' On the Discovery of Permo-Carboniferous Rock at Mount St. Mary, North Otago." Trans. 
N.Z. Jn.'it.. vol. xxxvi, 1904. pp. 447-553. 

^ Lor. cit., p. 449. 

X J. M. Bell and ('. Kraser : •' 'I'lie Geology of tho Hokitika Sheet, Xortii Westland Quadrangle." Bull. 
No. J (X.S.). X.Z. (,'eol. Suir.. 190(), pp. 19, 40 el nq. See also P. O. Morgan: " The (ieology of the 
Mikonui Subdivision." Bull. So. H (S.S.), X.Z. Geol. Surv., 1908, p. 33, 


The conformitv that seems to oxist between the Awamoko schists and the Kurow 
altered rocks may represent the actual relationship of these two systems. And strati- 
graf)hical conformity may exist between the Maitai and Mount St. Mary formations ; 
but it seems inconceivable, in the light of the established relationship of the Lower 
and Upper Palaeozoic systems of Europe and America, that there should be in New 
Zealand a continuous stratigraphical succession from the older or middle Palaeozoic to 
the Jurassic. 

The apparent strlitigraphical conformity of the Kurow phyllites and the overlying 
Maitaian rocks may have arisen from persistent axial folding. The axial folding of 
the ancient Awamoko chain followed a north-west - south-east course. From what we 
know of mountain-building in the Cainozoic, with its persistent folding along defined axes, 
from the Eocene to the Pliocene, it does not seem difficult to conceive a revival 
of the Awamokoau folding in the Mesozoic of such magnitude as to involve the sedi- 
ments of that era in folds running parallel with the pre-Permian folds, thereby 
giving an appearance of conformity which is in reality deceptive. As a matter of 
fact, the Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks, like the Awamokoan on which they 
rest, are bent in great north-west - south-east folds ; but whether the whole of the 
Palaeozoic and Mesozoic material formed one continuous succession, and were bent into 
the north-West - south-east folds at one period of crustal movement or formed two great 
unconformable systems folded along the same axis, but at different periods, is a problem 
that cannot be solved till more data are gathered in the field. In the absence of 
palaeontological evidence it would be futile to stress the apparent stratigraphical con- 
formity of the Kakanuian and Maitaian, due to parallelism of strike. 

From the Permo-Carboniferous to the close of the Jurassic, deposition was con- 
tinuous on a steadily sinking sea-floor on the present site of the Kakanui and Kurow 
chains. The increasing coarseness of the sediments in the upper portion of the 
succession tends to show that the land which provided the sediments was 
gradually rising. Of the situation and size of this land little or nothing is known. 
That it possessed continental dimensions is proved by the occurrence of Mesozoic 
rocks from one end of New Zealand to the other, throughout a length of a thousand 
miles. A study of the sediments does not help us greatly. The rapidly alternating 
argillites and sandstones, with associated bands of conglomerate, show us that the 
sediments were laid down in shallow water. The coarse conglomerates in the Trias 
of the King-country, Kawhia, East Cape, Nelson, and Southland are composed mainly 
of granite, gneiss, and other crystalline rocks. Here we have trustworthy evidence 
that the Palaeozoic land, wherever it lay, was in some part composed of a complex 
of crystalline rocks, and continued to exist till the Middle Mesozoic. 

Hutton held the view that the pre-Permian continental land lay to the west 
of New Zealand. Hector was of the same mind, and surmised that this elusive land 
was connected with the mythical Gondwanaland from which the Mesozoic sediments 
of India were thought to have been shed. There is little evidence in favour of the 
western site^ and as little against it ; and till more is known of the geological structure 
of the Antarctic continent we cannot hope to get nearer the truth. 

The biological evidence, though scanty, would seem to favour the view that a 
greater New Zealand existed in Early Mesozoic time, connected with the Mesozoic land- 
masses of the Northern Hemisphere. 

The tuatara [SpJienodon punctatum) of New Zealand belongs to a type of lizard 
that existed over a great part of the earth's surface as far back as the Triassic 
period. The New Zealand form of this archaic type is the only survival. The 
remainder have disappeared, or by a slow process of evolution have changed into other 
forms, suited to a new environment. Sphenodon is a reptile which lived on land, and 


laid its eggs there. Hence its migration to this southern land could have been possible 
only by means of a land connection between this and the Triassic land of the Northern 

The survival of the Sphenodon family in New Zealand points to the severance of 
the southern land in the Middle Mesozoic. And the persistence of the type, without 
change, in the aeons of time that have elapsed since the severance, suggests to us the 
absence of competitors and the prevalence of the same general climatic conditions. 

Towards the close of the Jurassic period there travelled across New Zealand a series 
of mountain-forming crustal folds, all running in a north-west - south-east direction. 
Among the remains of this movement are the worn-down and truncated Hauraki chain in 
Auckland ; the Kaimanawa chain in north Wellington ; the Wairau chain between Nelson 
and Marlborough, of which the Richmond Hills are the forefold ; and the Kurow-Kakanui 
Mountains of North Otago, now the subject of discussion. The evidence of this Late 
Mesozoic north-west -south-east folding has also been recognized in North Westland, 
and discussed by Morgan.* The north-west - south-east folding was antecedent to and 
independent of the north-east - south-west folding which built up the present axial chains 
of both Islands of the Dominion. 

The wide hiatus that exists between the Jurassic and the Oamaruian would indicate 
that the newly formed Kurow-Kakanui chain remained above sea-level well into the 
Cainozoic ; and the absence of rocks of Cretaceous or Eocene age on its present borders 
would lead us to conclude that it attained such a height that the waste produced by 
the denudation of its surface was discharged along the shores of a strand far to the 
eastward of the existing shore-line of North Otago. 

At the close of the Eocene there was a general sinking of the land, but the 
submergence was not complete. On the diminished flanks of the Kakanui Mountains 
there was spread a sheet of quartzose sand and gravel that filled up the inequalities of 
the surface, and prepared a stretch of low-lying land along the eastern shores on which 
a dense jungle vegetation flourished for some time, or long enough to permit a thick 
deposit of decaying peaty matter to accumulate. The forest vegetation which at this 
time clothed the slopes of the mountains and maritime flats included the evergreen oak, 
beech, laurel, myrtle, and many pines. The period of vegetable growth on the flats 
recently reclaimed from the sea probably represented an interval when the downward 
movement of the land was arrested. 

After a time the subsidence was renewed, and .soon the maritime forests were 
iimndated and destroyed. The denudation of the quartzose rocks, so strongly 
represented in the Kakaimi and Kurow mountains, provided a pile of quartzose sands 
and gravels, beneath which the destroyed forest was buried in places to a depth of 
300 ft. There is no evidence to show that sediments were transported and spread 
out on the Miocene strand by a dominating trunk river. The small uniform size of the 
material might be taken to indicate that they were formed by a imraber of small 
streams draining the eastern slopes of the mountains ; but this is not quite certain. 
The quartz folia in the mica-schists and the quartz layers in the claystone-quartz 
formation are always thin, rarely exceeding 4 in. in thickness. The quartz itself is 
much shattered, and when the interfoliated softer rock was removed it would break up 
into small fragments without much resistance. 

The subsidence still continued, and the land subject to denudation correspondingly 
diminished in extent. Over the fluvio-marine Ngaparan sediments were spread marine 
sands and clays, the former micaceous, as would be expected from the denudation of 

* P. G. Morgan: "'The Geology ot tho Mikonui Subdivision. North Westland." Ridl. Xo. 6 f X.S J 
1908, p. 34. 


the mica-schists and phyllites providing the quartzose material of the sands. The 
fossil contents of these sediments tell us that the seas of this period swarmed 
with molluscan life, with cetaceans, with sharks, and other fishes, &c. The molluscan 
and other marine life of this time indicates the prevalence of climatic conditions that 
were not much different from those of the warm temperate zones of the present day. 

At the close of the Ngaparan there began, many miles seaward of the Miocene 
strand, a series of submarine volcanic outbursts that continued with intermittent periods 
of rest up till the middle of the Ototaran stage. Two main periods of activity may 
be recognized — namely, one that began at the close of the Ngaparan and continued 
with two short intervals of rest up to the beginning of the Ototaran ; and one that 
produced the tuffs and lavas associated with the Oamaru limestone. In the neighbourhood 
of Oamaru the activity continued till the close of the deposition of the Hutchinson 
Quarry limestone ; and in this area the Oamaru limestone is represented bv tuffs and 
basalt-flows. The irregular lenses of ash in the Hutchinson Quarrv limestone would 
indicate that the expiring outbursts were feeble and intermittent. 

The first outbursts were perhaps the most intense, prolonged, and far-reaching in 
their effects. The fragmentary material was projected as far .south as the Kakanui, as 
far west as Elderslie, and as far to the north-west as Papakaio. With the exception of 
two short intervals of rest, the outbursts continued throughout the whole of the 
Waiarekan stage. The periods of rest are marked by two calcareous horizons and a 
slight discordance of stratification in the Cape Wanbrow section, and by two horizons 
of diatomaceous earth in the tuffs of the Waiareka Valley and Papakaio district. 
And while volcanic ejectamenta were being piled up around Oamaru, normal marine 
sediments were accumulating on the sea-floor along the ancient Kakanui strand. 

In a few places floods of basaltic lava poured over the sea-fioor, and there became 
intercalated with the volcanic ash and muds. 

The character of the sediments and the contained life show that the materials were 
deposited in shallow water. The slow sinking of the land that began with the Miocene 
still continued. 

At the close of the Waiarekan there was a complete cessation of volcanic activity 
for a considerable time ; and in the clear warm waters of the Oamaru sea reef-building 
Polyzoa established themselves on the newly formed submarine tuff platform, and by their 
growth formed the Ototaran limestones. Here we find that it was not the subsidence 
of a dry-land area, as postulated by the Dai-winian hypothesis, but the rapid piling-up 
of a volcanic platform on the sea-floor that led to the formation of this off-shore fringing 
coral reef. Building upward, and not subsidence, was the originating factor. 

Towards the close of the Ototaran stage there was a revival of volcanic activity, 
during which much ash was ejected, thickest and coarsest near Kakanui Heads, but 
thinning out and becoming finer in texture towards the west, eventually disappearing 
near Weston. The ash destroyed the reef-builders, and buried their remains under a 
thick sheet of volcanic ejecta that, as stated above, tapered out to nothing when passing 
away from the centre of activity. 

Then followed a period of quietude, during which the Polyzoa established them- 
selves on the newly ejected volcanic ash and muds. Beyond the limits covered by the 
volcanic material the reef-building had continued uninterruptedly ; hence in the Weston 
area we get an unbroken sheet of Ototara limestone, while east of that this limestone 
is split into two unequal portions by a wedge of tuffs that rapidly thickens as we 
proceed towards Kakanui. 

The inter-Ototaran tuffs contain a rich and varied molluscan fauna, from which we 
gather that they were not produced by a single violent outburst, but were ejected as a 

Plate II. 

Natural Scale of Feet 





fg'hbtj'hZm, n \ opq \ s 

Sir vke 303° (mag) Str-zke 290° (mcLg.) 

s t XL r> Yv 

Strike 300° (rrhcxg.) 

Blue sandy clays ; 30 ft. exposed. 
Band of hard calcareous sandstone : 
Blue sandy clays; 8ft. 
Band of hard calcareous sandstone : 
Blue sandy clays ; 43 ft. 
Hard calcareous band ; 18 in. 

18 in. 

16 in. 

A. Section from near Eifle Butts Northward to Nag's Head (Distance, i Mile). 

Hutchinsonian . Ototaran, 

Soft glanconitio sands ; 9 ft. 

Hard brown limonitic sandstone ; 2 ft. 

Glauconitic sandy shell-bed ; 5 ft. 

Green sands with Fachymagan parki ; 5 ft. 

Band of hard limestone, rubbly ; 6 ft. 

Olive-green calcareous tuffs, fossiliferous ; 9 ft. 

m. Band of hard limestone ; 12 in. 

n. Oamaru stone ; 47 ft. 

0. Tliin-bedded clays and sandy beds ; 10 ft. 

p. Hard limestone ; 7 ft. 

q. Basaltic conglomerate, limestone matrix ; 2o ft. 

SC yy 

Datum ■ Low water sea-level 



Coarsb calcareous tuff, fossiliferous ; 4 in. -12 in. 
Yello>i'ish-brown calcareous coralline tuffs ; 42 ft. 
Band it calcareous pebbly grit with Liothyrella, Oavia- 

ruiica. Venericardia, &o. ; in. -12 in. 
Thin-jedded tufaceous sands and clays ; 20 It. 
Hard bluish-green calcareous tuffs, glauconitic, with 

small fragments of vesicular basalt, fossiliferous ; 

Well-bedded tuffs with blocks of vesicular basalt, in 

pl.'.ces glauconitic and calcareous, showing curtent- 

be'lding; 70 ft. 
Wedg! of friction breccia on fault-plane. 


Bocbtrruxns Eojrbovsr 

21 to 25 

4-0° g 40' 

Str-Ohe 1 1 " - 1 2° (rnxig ) -- 




74" 13 U 

StTv'ke 101 °- 102° ( rnag ) 

22 e 25" db 

I TerebraJtvCUx , sp. ? 
->i StThke 86° (mobg.) 


Cape WcLribr-ow 

Sea -level C 

Strzke 11°-n" 
Sees aZttc dy'he (6 " to 12 'wtcte) 
artcL fcvuZt 'plocne 


17" tD 21" Fcuult 
Strhke 20°(-mccg.) 



Natural Scale 

.^0. . . .q 

of Feet 



B. Measured Section of Waiarekan Tuffs and Basalts from Boatman's Harbour to Cape Wanbrow (Distance, f Mile). 
a. Slope deposit. e. Fossiliferous tuffs, sandstones, clays, &c. h^ t£ lil Beds of hard limestone, 3 in.-12 ic. thick, brecciated with 

Pleistocene silts. 

c. Raised beach ; 12 ft. 

d. Brecciated tachylitic lava. 

Basaltic pillow-lava. 

Well-bedded tuffs, buff and greenish-brown. 

Well-bedded tuffs, lying between two faults. 

large angular pieces of basalt. 
Bluish-green tuffs, bedding indistinct. 

Geol. Bull. No. 20.] 

[To face page 16. 


number of small intermittent showers that slowly settled on the floor of the sunounding 
sea, so slowly that the contemporar\' marine life was not destroyed. 

It is noteworthy that dm:ing the Ototaran period many basaltic dykes intruded the 
Waiarekan tuffs at Cape Wanbrow and in the Waiareka Valley. At Maheno some 
dykes have penetrated far into the Oamaru limestone, in the form of sheets or sills. 
The intrusion was not confined to the volcanic zone ; dykes are found to have invaded 
the quartzose Ngaparan coal-measures and tbe overlying sandstones of Waiarekan age. 
The intrusion of these dykes appears to have been contemporaneous with the second 
period of volcanic activitj' which produced the inter-Ototaran tuffs at Deborah and 

At the close of the Ototaran stage the persistent downward movement of the 
Ngaparan, Waiarekan, and Ototaran times was arrested, and there began an upward 
movement of short duration. This uplift, though only a minor oscillation in the 
general sinking of the land and sea-floor, led to the invasion of the " coral reefs '" by 
myriads of brachiopods and many molluscs. These brachiopods and molluscs, by the 
infiltration of calcareous . matter, afterwards formed the hard bed of limestone variously 
known as the Hutchinson Quarry, Deborah, Flat Top Hill, or Kakanui limestone. 
During this period the neighbouring sea was inhabited by the toothed cetacean, Keketiodon 
onairuilu Hector ; by the gigantic shark, Carcharodoii megalodon Agassiz ; a ray, Myliohatis 
plicatilis Davis ; the large nautilus, Aturia australis McCoy ; and a great variety of 
Polyzoa and Foraminifera, together with many species of brachiopods and pectens ; 
while the shores were frequented by a giant penguin, Palceeudyptes antarcticus Huxley. 

Westward of the volcanic area the Deborah limestone lies hard on the upper surface 
of the Oamaru limestone. During this period of uplift there was laid down on the 
surface of the Deborah limestone a thin sheet of marine gravel that in the neighbourhood 
of Oamaru is mainly composed of basaltic pebbles. Among the most conspicuous 
fossils in this gravel are a thick-shelled oyster, Ostrea wiisllerstorfi Zittel ; the teeth of 
the large shark, Garcharodon megalodon Agassiz ; and a large brachiopod, Terebratella sp. 
cf. T. neozealandica von Ihering. 

The character of the constituent pebbles proves that some portion of the recently 
ejected volcanic material now formed a dry land surface ^subject to denudation, or 
perhaps low islands or reefs just awash, and hence subject to the pounding action 
of the ocean-waves and erosion of coastal currents. This bed of gravel, now com- 
pacted into a conglomerate, is a thin but persistent member of the succession, and 
can be traced westwards as far as the Devil's Bridge. At All Day Bay it- rests on a 
corroded surface of the Kakanui limestone. Tlie .stratigraphical mu^onformity between 
the Ototaran and Hutchinson ian, though well marked at All Day Bay, is indistinguish- 
able outside the Oamaru district. It is merely a local discordance, in some way connected 
with the contemporaneous volcanic activity in this neighbourhood. 

About the middle of the Hutchinsonian, subsidence again came into evidence, 
the downward movement being accompanied by the deposition of sandy material coated 
with glauconite, and in plac^es crowded with brachiopods, pectens, and the distinctive 
coral Lsis dacti/ln T. -Woods. The sharp line of demarcation between the conglomerate 
and the greensands indicates that a complete change in the local conditions of deposition 
took place in a relatively short period of time, the change probably arising from the 
rapid submergence of the volcanic islands that furnished the material forming the 

On the still sinking sea-floor were now laid down glauconitic sandy beds that were 
followed by shelly sands, blue sandy clays, and muds. The glauconitic sandy beds are 
usually calcareous ; they form the uppermost member of the Hutchinsonian, while the 
overlying shelly sands and clays comprise the Awamoan. 
2 — Oamaru. 


With the exception of one or two " minor oscillations, a general subsidence pre- 
vailed throughout the whole of the Miocene. As the subsidence progressed the sea 
encroached more and more on the dry land. As a result of this landward trans- 
gression from east to west, the succession of deposits at places far to the westward 
cannot be coeval with that of places farther eastward, where deposition began at an earlier 
stage. While the conditions of deposition were marine at Oamaru, those at Wharekuri 
may have been terrestrial or fiuvio-marine. Hence the succession of the Oamaruian 
at Wharekuri may be somewhat later in date than that at Oamaru. 

As soon as the sea invaded the inland places now occupied by Middle Cainozoic 
beds the marine life in the continuous sea was everywhere the same in the same 
bathymetrical zones. If marine deposition began at Wharekuri during the Ototaran 
stage of Oamaru we should expect the molluscan life in the Wharekuri marine deposits 
overlying the quartzose lignitic measures at that place to be closely related to, though 
not identical with, the moUuscan life of the inter-Ototaran tuffs at Deborah and 
Kakanui : the palaeontological evidence supports this view — that is, the molluscan 
fauna of the Wharekuri marine beds, as will be shown in the .sequel, is more nearly 
related to that of the Kakanui inter-Ototaran tulfs than to the fauna of the Black 
Point marine beds, which also follow the lignitic measures. The jjroblem becomes clear 
only when we remember that the Black Point marine beds (Bortonian) were deposited 
before the sea had reached the Wharekuri area. 

It should be noted that the Oamaru stone represents a fo.ssil polyzoan reef that 
flourished a few miles off the Miocene strand. It is a purely local deposit, found 
only in the neighbourhood of Oamaru, and nowhere else in New Zealand ; but 
fortunately for us the contemporaneous molluscan life has been preserved in the volcanic 
tuffs intercalated with it at Kakanui and other places. 

After the deposition of the Awamoan there began in the Early Pliocene a general 
uplift that affected not only the Oamaru area,- but the greater portion of the 
South Island. The land rose to such a height that the newly formed Middle Cainozoic 
sediments began to be worn away by subaerial erosion. 

Along the east coast of Otago and South Canterbury the Oamaruian strata lie at 
or near sea-level ; but inland they gradually rise till they attain a height of 
1,000 ft. above the sea. The inference to be drawn from this is that the uplift was 
not uniform, but a differential tilting that was more rapid along the main axial chain 
than elsewhere. 

In the Nelson terrain the Oamaruian rises from sea-level to a height of 3,000 ft. on 
the flanks of the north-east - south-west axial divide, and is everywhere marginal to it. 
Here we have evidence of more acute differential uplift than in Otago. Further, we gather 
that the Middle Cainozoic deposits of New Zealand were laid down when the existing 
alpine chain was partially submerged. The portion of the chain that stood above sea- 
level during the Miocene evidently possessed great length and little breadth ; but its 
mass was. nevertheless, sufficient to produce the detritus of the Miocene deposits. 

The differential Pliocene uplift affected the whole of the South Island, and subjected 
the older folded rocks to tensional stresses that were relieved by the formation of 
powerful axial faults. Between these faults the covering sheet of Middle Cainozoic 
deposits was uplifted in narrow step-like blocks that increase in height going towards 
the main divide. In some places patches of the Tertiaries, usually highly tilted 
and sharply folded, have been preserved in trough-like basins that are bounded by 
faults and walled in by blocks of the older rocks, from the surface of which the 
Oamaruian deposits have been removed by denudation. The last emergence of the 
alpine chain of the South Island probably took place in the Early Pliocene. The 


submergence of this great folded oliaiti wliich ])recoded tlie Pliocene emergence led to the 
deposition of the great Oamaruian succession. 

The noith-east - southwest folded axial chain of the North Island was also submerged 
during the Oamaruian. but the submergence lasted longer than in the South Island. This 
we learn from the circumstance that a sheet of older Pliocene strata rises high on 
the flanks of the Ruahine and Kainianawa ranges. Here also we have a trustworthy 
measure of the extent of the uplift that took place in later Pliocene times. The 
Miocene deposits of the South Island were uplifted in blocks by great parallel faults, 
whereas the older Pliocene strata of western Wellington rise from sea-level at the 
Wauganui Bight as a gently sloping plain that in a distance of fifty miles reaches a 
height of 3,000 ft. on the southern flanks of Mount Ruapehu, and of 3,600 ft. on the 
slopes oi the Kaimanawa Mountains. This broad sloping plain is bounded on the 
east by the Pohangina fault, and on the we.«t by the Waimarino fault. Clearly, the 
differential uplift of the older Pliocene strata in this area is due to crustal tilting 
accompanied by faulting, the pivot of the movement being situated in the VVanganui 

Similarly, the older i'liocene strata of Hawke's Bay rise gradually going westward 
till they reach a height of 3,60<J ft. on the flanks of the Ruahine ciiain. And since 
the west side of this chain is bounded by ' the powerful Pohangina fault, we have 
good reason to conclude that the great axial divide of the North Island is also a 
tilted block. 

The dry land which emerged from the .sea during the Early Pliocene in the South 
Island and later Pliocene in the North Island gave New Zealand its present outline and 
configuration. Little or no change has taken place since the Pliocene, except that 
caused l)y the building of coastal plains or the piling-up of the products of volcanic 
activity, the latter for tiie most part in the North Island. The uplift has been 
maintained up to the present day, though there have been various minor oscillations, 
prominently those arising from volcanic activity or seismic causes. 

There is good reason to believe that it was in the early stages of the Pliocene 
uplift that the existing river-systems of the South Island began to be developed, and 
the development kept pace with the upward movement. As the emergence progressed 
the alj)ine rivers cut down the present narrow transverse valleys by which they reach 
the sea. 

Some time during the Early Pliocene the newly raised Miocene .strata at Oaraaru 
were gently folded along their seaward margin, the folding producing the Waiareka 
anticline and Awamoa synciine. The cause of this folding and tilting is obscure ; but 
if we may judge from its local character it may he a result of crustal settlement 
around the scene of the Miocene volcanic activity. 

For some time the u))lifted and folded Oamaruian strata were subject to sub- 
aerial denudation ; and then upon their denuded surface the Waitaki River spread a 
thick sheet of sand and gravel, composed of material derived from the erosion of the 
older rocks along its course. Soon after the deposition of these gravels there was 
a clearly defined uj)lift of the land, whi(;h rai.sed the ancient flood-plain to a vertical 
height of about 300 ft. above sea-level, thereby forming what is now the Oaraaru 
tableland. The progress of this uplift was marked by two periods of rest, during 
which the .sea cut the rocky headlands around Cape Wanbrow into gently .sloping 
platforms. The older of these planes of marine erosion now stands at a height of 
42 ft. above sea-level. The younger or lower, which is naturally the better preserved, 
forms a well-marked feature on the rock-bound coast near Oamaru and at Kakanui. 
It lies 12 ft. above high-water mark. 

2* — Oamaru. 


While the uplift of the Oainani tableland was in ])rogre8S the Waitaki River 
excavated the lower end of its course in the gravels it had previously laid down, 
and in this way formed the Papakaio Plain, which is merely the present valley- 
floor. This work of excavation was probably completed in the Early Pleistocene. 
The Pliocene uplift may have been in part responsible for the widespread Pleistocene 
glaciation of the South Island, but to what extent is unknown. 

The deposition of yellow silta closes the last chapter of the geological history 
of Oamaru. These silts extend along the coast from Timaru to Moeraki, and occur 
as an irregular sheet that overspreads all the older formations, including even the 
tableland gravels. They are thickest on the sea-front of Cape Wanbrow and seaward 
face of the tableland behind Oamaru. Their mode of occurrence and distribution 
would indicate that they are fine .sediments of glacial origin cast upon the Pleistocene 
strand, and carried inland by the prevailing easterly windf. 




I-Hstribiition . . 


Arrangemeat . . 
Economic Minoi'als 



The Pal?eozoic rocks form a low truncated tlat-topped ridge that extends from near 
Peebles to Black Point. A small isolated patch crops out in the bed of a deep gorge on 
the south-east side of Big Hill, and there is reason to believe that the basement beds of 
the Oauiaruian coal-measures everywhere in this district rest on Palaeozoic rocks. Tlie 
Palaeozoic rocks are flanked on the south, west, and north by the conglomerates of the 
coal-measures, and at one time they were ])robably completely covered by Tertiary deposits. 


The Palaeozoic rocks are mica-schists that in places pass into typical phyllite. The 
mica-schist is a slate-grey rock laminated with quartz. When viewed in mass it presents 
a dark-russet appearance on weathered surfaces. The quartz and mica laminae are often 
corrugated or wavy. When examined in thin slice the rock is seen to consist almost 
entirely of quartz and mica, arranged in thin irregular layers. A plagioclase feldspar, 
probably albite, is often present, as well as rutile in long thin needle-shaped crystals. 
The mica is sericitic. white in colour, and |)robably muscovite. The mica and quartz 
laminae vary considerably in thi(;kness ; in places they are as thin as tissue paper, in 
others 1 in. or more in thickness. In some places the quartz laminae are thicker than 
the mica lamime. and in other places the converse is true. With a rock so variable in 
constitution it is impossible to select a single example that is truly representative of the 

As shown by the following analysis, the composition of this mica-schist does not 
differ greatly from that of the less altered .schists of Alexandra, Central (Jtago : — 

Silica (SiOj) .. .. .. .. .. 57-42 

Alumina (AljOj) 
Ferric oxide (FejlJj) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide (MnU) 
Chromic oxide (CrjOj) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Titanium oxide (TiOj) 
Potassium oxide (K^O) 
Sodium oxide (NajO) 
Sulphuric anhydride (SO 3) .. 
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 
Water lost below 100" C. . . 
Water lost above 100° C. . . 

















The pliyllites are interstratificd with the mica-schist. The tyjiical phyllite varies 
from light to dark grey, and possesses a characteristic silky lustre along the planes of 
stratification. Frequently the rock is rusty along the folia, owing to the oxidation of 
the pyrites disseminated along the foliation-planes. 

Microscopically examined the' rock is seen to consist essentially of minute scales of 
white sericitic inica and quartz, with sometimes a little chlorite. 

The mica-schists and pliyllites a])pear to be altered sediments ; and in both the 
foliation-planes are parallel to the original planes of stratification. 


Good sections of the mica-schists are seen in the gorge of Awamoko Stream, in a 
deep gulch near Georgetown, and in the road-cuttings of the Georgetown Xgapara Road. 
The strike is everj'where about north-west - south-east, and the direction of dip south- 
west. The angle of dip of the lowermost rocks, as seen along the Waitaki front, varies 
from 55° to 65" ; but in going south-westward the angle of dip becomes steeper and 
steeper, till at the point where the uppermost rocks disappear below the younger 
deposits, as seen at the upper end of the Awamoko Gorge, the dip is 84°. If the 
average angle of dip is taken at 72°, the thickness of mica-schist and i)hyllite exposed in 
the Awamoko section cannot be less than 9,000 ft. 

Woter- TOLce 37S 


SW Id a 

Fig. 1. — Section along Awamoko (jIoroe. 

(Distance, \\ miles.) 

II. Mica-schist and phyllite. .■. High-level Waitaki gravels. 

h. Ngaparan coal-inoasures. d. River-valley gravels. 

There is nothing to indicate the age of these rocks except the fact that they underlie 
the great succession of argillites and senii-metamorphic greywackes that form the Kurow 
Mountains and that, in turn, lie below the fossiliferous Triassic or Permo-Triassic rocks 
at Mount St. Mary. 

Economic Minerals. 

Small amounts of gold have been washed from the gravels in the Awamoko Gorge, 
but the limited extent of the gravelly alluvium that has survived the scouring effects of 
the stream when swollen by torrential rains precludes the possibility of a payable discovery 
being made on the course of this stream, which for the greater portion of its length is a 
steep rock-bound gorge. 




Distribution . . 
Character of Hoclvs 
Conclition.s of Deposition 
Fauna and Flora 
.Subdivision of the Uaniaruian 




IStage-name.s . . 

. 25 


The Oamaruian iSuccession 

. 2G 


Ago of tiie Oamaruian. . 

. 26 


Tabular Statement of Oainaiuiaii Strata. , 

. 28 


Tliickness of Strata 

. 29 


The (Jaiuaruian extends from the sea westward to the foot of the Kakanui Range ; and, 
with the exception of small patches of the Palseozoic basement rocks exposed by denuda- 
tion in the Ngapara and Livingstone districts and the Awamoko mica-schist ridge in the 
Waitaki V'alley, it occupies the whole of the terrain lying between the Kakanui and 
Waitaki rivers. 

Character ok Rocks. 

'I'he lowermost strata consist ui Huviatile gravels, sands, clays, and lignite. These 
are followed by marine sands, clay.s, and calcareous de|)osit« that in tlie coastal area are 
intercalated with the products of contemporaneous volcanic activity. 

The coarser drifts of the Huviatile series are usually consolidated into hard limonitic 
conglomerates, while tlie sandy beds and finer quartzose drifts are mostly loose and 

In the marine series the clays are usually soft and often interbedded with iiard flaggy 
masses or isolated of more sandy material, as a rule crowded with fo.ssil molluscs. 
The marine sandy beds are frequently soft, but seldom incoherent except where highly 
glauconitic. Mostly they are calcareous, and hard enough to form steep faces where 
exposed on the banks of deep streams. Tiic limestone members are soft, or very hard 
and compact. 

Conditions ok Deposition. 

The Huviatile deposits were laid down along the strand of the old Miocene land on a 
slowly sinking sea-Hoor. The subsidence persisted till near the close of the Miocene, and 
during its progress the Huviatile deposits became buried beneath a great thickness of 
marine material. The marine clays and .sandy beds are detrital, while the limestones are 
largely the work of reef-building Polyzoa. 

The volcanic activity which began at the close of the Huviatile period was submarine, 
intermittent, and mainly of the explosive type. The ejected fragmentary material 
consisted of ash that ranged from the finest dust to the coarsest breccias. Effusions of 
lavas were rare, and when they did take place seldom reached far from the point of 

In the Oamaru and Kakanui areas the normal marine deposits arc intercalated with 
ash-beds and lavas ; but the products of the eruptions do not extend far from the 
centres of activity. Doubtless the violence of the outbursts was greatly diminished by 
the pressure of the overlying sheet of water. 

Fauna and Flora. 

At the tmie of the deposition of the Oamaruian sediments the shallow waters 
around the coast teemed with a rich and varied assemblage of molluscan life. Many 


of tlu' molluscs grew to a great size, which may he taken to indicate the existence 
of a plentiful food-supply and the prevalence of a warm temperate climate in the 
New Zealand Miocene. Piominent among the shell-fish which flourished in these genial 
seas were, — 

Ostrea wuellerstorfi Zitt. CucullcBa alta Sow. 

Ostrea nelsoniana Zitt. Cardium spatiu-sum llutt. 

Pecten beethami Hutt. Crassatellite.s amplua (Zitt.). 

Pecten hutchinsoni Hutt. Dosinia magna Hutt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). Dentalium noUrlum Hutt. 

Litna Immgaia Hutt. Turrilella caver shame n sis Harris. 

Lima colorata Hutt. Polinices ovatus (Hutt.). 

Erachiopods first appear in the Upper Waiarekan, reach their niaxinium development 
towards the close of the Oamaruian, and almost disappear at the close of the 

The deeper waters were inhabited by a great variety of Polyzoa, Foraminifera, 
diatoms, sponges, and radiolarians. In these and the neighbouring seas there lived 
a zeuglodon whale (Kekenodon onamata Hector), and a giant penguin related to 
an existing Antarctic type {Palceeudyptes antarcticus Huxley). Fishes were numerous, 
and included the gigantic Carcharodon megalodon Agassiz, and a great ray (Myliobatis 
plicatilis Davis). The cephalopods were represented by Aturia australis McCoy, a large 
nautilus which also inhabited the Australian Miocene seas. 

Of the vegetation that clothed the maritime slopes of the Miocene land only tlie 
scantiest information is available. This arises not so much from the poverty of the 
vegetation as from the character of the deposits that form the coal-measures. These 
consist mainly of coarse (;onglomerates or loose quartzose gravels and sands. Muds 
or shales in which leaves and other vegetable-remains might have been preserved 
are almost entirely absent. Within the Oamaru terrain no recognizable ])hint-remains 
were found, but in the coal-shales at Livingstone Railway Tunnel there occur a few 
impressions of dicotyledonous leaves and some palm-nuts. Elsewhere in the Oamaruian 
brown-coal measures there have been identified the leaves of the beech, myrtle, 
Aralia. Damtnara, Podocarjms, Dacrijdmm. palms, and numerous ferns — all showing 
a generic relationship to the existing flora. If the identifications are correct wh' have 
in this relationship a proof that the New Zealand mountains have not been wholly 
submerged since the Cretaceous period. 

In the brown coal are sometimes found trunks and limbs of forest-trees, and 
nests of a resin resembling kauri-resin, or so-called kauri-gum. 

Subdivision of the Oamakuian. 

In 1876 McKay* divided the Middle Cainozoic strata of tiie Oamaru district 
into live groups of beds. They are, in descending order, — 

(1.) Awamoa beds. 

(2.) Hutchinson Quarry beds. 

(3.) Ototara stone. 

(4.) Waiareka tuffs. 

(5.) Quartzose coal-measures. 
The correctness of the succession as determined by McKay has been confirmed by the 
present detailed survey. 

* A. jyicKaj' : ' Report oa Oamaru and Waitaki Districts." Rep. Geol. Exphr. during 1876-77. 
No. 10- 1877, pp. 41 60: 2 figs. 

Plate III. 

A. C. Gifford, pholo , 

A. Basai/iic Dyke near Cape Wanbrow 

A. C. Gifford, /ihulo. 

B. Fine Tuffs, well-bedded, near Cape Wanbrow 

Geol. Bull. No. 20.] 

[To face page 2^.. 



For a classification to be a trustworthy standard of rofereuce it is an essential 
requirement that the subdivision shall he made in a district where the component 
subdivisions are in such intimate association that their relationship to one another 
can never be in doubt. It is certain that nowhere in New Zealand are the Middle 
Cainozoic rocks so fully represented as in North Otago, nowhere are they so little 
disturbed and their stratigraphical relationships so clear, and nowhere do they contain 
so many fossiliferous horizons. 

In his paper " On Stage Names applicable to the Divisions of the Tertiary in 
New Zealand" Thomson* suggests the use of stage - names for the subdivisions of 
the Oamaruian System. He takes tlie Middle Cainozoic rocks as developed in 
North Otago as the. typical succession, and adopts the adjectival form of McKay's 
place-names of 1876 for the different groups of marine beds. For the basement 
quartzose coal-measures group he proposes the stage-name " Ngaparan." Thomson's 
stage-names are, — 

(1.) Awamoan. 

(2.) Hutchinsonian. 

(.'!) Ototaran. 

(4.) Waiarekan. 

(5.) Ngaparan. 

The author's place -nanu- " Kaikorai," first useil l)y hitu in 19101 for the 
Oamaruian quartzose coal-measures of Kaikorai Valley, Fernliill, and (Jreen Island, near 
Dunedin, should, in the strict order of things, take priority of Thojusons stage-name 
" Ngaparan.' Arising from the absence of fossiliferous horizons in the Middle 
Cainozoic near Dunedin, there must always remain a doubt as to the relationship of 
the Kaikorai to the Ngapara quartzose coal-measures. They may or may not be 
contemporaneous. The relationship of the Ngaparan to the Waiarekan is quite clear 
in North Otago, whereas the relationship of the Kaikorai beds of Dunedin to the 
Waiarekan of Oamaru is unknown. In these circumstances, in order to avoid the 
duplication of names and the confusion that might arise from the selection of a series 
of beds as typical, the relationship of which to the Waiarekan of Oamaru is incapable 
of proof, it seems inexpedient to revive the older name. 

'J'he five subdivisions of the Oamaruian recognized by the old Geological Survey 
under Sir James Hector and by 'i'homson were not exj)i('ssiy based on palseontological 
grounds, but on the close stratigraphical association of certain related groups of beds. 

The palseontological evidence collected during the present .survey shows that the 
Waiarekan consists of an upper and a lower horizon. The lower, as typically developed 
near Borton's,J contains the oldest marine fauna of the Oamaruian. This fauna is 
notable, since it marks the first encroachment of the sea on the lignitic strata. The 
Bortonian group contains many interesting forms, some of the g(>nera being new to 
the New Zealand fauna. 

The upper or true Waiarekan marks the advent of the brachiopods, which play 
so important a part in the Middle (Jamaruian. It possesses an abundant molluscan 
fauna that is more nearly related to the inter-Ototaran than the Bortonian. 

On palaeontological grounds the Hutchinsonian might be divided into two sub- 
stages— -the lower or true Hutchinsonian including the glauconitic greensands, the 
upper comprising the glauconitic calcareous sandstone that forms the Waitaki stone 
or Waitakian. 

* J. A. Thomson : Tmn». N.Z. Inst., vol. xlviii, 1916, p. 28. 
t James Park : The Geology n{ New Zealainl, 1910, i>. 108. 

X Borton's is on the branch railway-line to Kurow, and i.s Iwonlj -ioiii' niile.s fioin (Jamaru. It is out- 
side the area mapped In this bulletin. 


When dealing with the subdivision of the Miocene we must ever keep in mind the 
fact that this jjeriod covers a relatively short space of time ; hence great faunal 
differences as between the ditferent members are not to be looked for. What we do 
find in i)assing upward from the lowermost marine horizon is a progressive increase 
in the number of living species. Apart from tliis, the molluscan faunas show a strong 
family resemblance throughout the whole of the (Jamaruian. 

There are several stratigraphical unconformities in the Miocene of Oamaru, but 
they are in every case local and intra -forma tional. 

The Oamaruian Succession. 

In the greater portion of the area covered by this Inilictni the Middle Cainozoic 
succession is intercalated with the [)roducts of submarine volcanic activity, consisting 
mostly of fragmentar}' material. The centre or centres of activity were situated some- 
where seaward of Oamaru and Ivakanui. The volcanic energy expended itself ni 
numerous small explosive outbursts, as a result of whicli a great thickness of well- 
bedded ash was in time piled on the slowly sinking sea-floor. On a few occasions there 
was an emission of basaltic lava which cre[)t along the sea-floor in tongue-like sheets. 
The accumulation of the fragmentary material was so slow that the contemporary 
marine life was still able to inhabit the sea within the volcanic zone. 

To the south and westward of the volcanic zone normal marine dejjosition 
continued without interruption. Thus it. happens that in the Oamaru Survey District 
we have both the normal marine succession and the normal succession intercalated 
with tuffs and lavas. The volcanic activity piled up a considerable thickness of 
pvroclastic beds that in places formed marine shoals, thereby creating conditions that 
favoured the assemblage of a varied molluscan fauna. These favourable conditions 
did not always exist where the normal marine sediments were accumulating ; hence 
we find that fossiliferous horizons of molluscan life are more numerous in the 
pvroclastic than the clastic succession — that is, where the grey glauconitic sandy beds 
underlving the Waitaki (or Ngapara) stone are replaced by the Oamaru stone from 
Tabletop Hill eastward to the sea. 

In the narrow maritime strip lying between Deborah and Kakanui the Oamaru 
stone is itself intercalated with calcareous tufTs that contain a rich molluscan fauna. 

The normal succession to the eastward and wi>stward of a line running from 
Ngapara to Papakaio is as follows : - 

.\etii Old Shore-line. E(i.'<lw<ir<l of Old Shore-line. 

Awamoan.. .. (a) Blue clays and .sandy beds .. (aj Blue clays and sandy bed.s. 

.(r/) Glauconitic sandstone witli hard cal- (a) (ilauconitic sandstone with lianl cul- 
' careous layers ( = Waitaki or Ksa- careous layers (Papakaio, Lan- 

Hutehinsonian . . para stone) don's Creek, Tabletop Hill). 

,(6) Glauconitic grcen.sands, with many (/<) (Ilauconitic greensands. with many 

' brachiopods biaohiopods. 

_. , , /, 1 -i J 1 1 '(«) Deborah limestone. 

Ototaran . . . . (a) Grey glauconitic sandy beds . . ^ |^J ^^^^^^^.^ ^^^^^ 

((a) Soft brown sandstones .. . . ('0 Thin-bedded marh" clays. 

Waiarekan . . - {h) Hard calcareous glauconitic sandstone (6j Yellowish - brown sandstones with 

( bed (Bortonian) hard concretions. 

Ngaparan . . (ff) Quartzose sands, grits, and conglo- {'i) Quartzose sands, grits, and conglo- 

merates with lignite merates with lignite. 

Age of the Oamaruian. 
The fossils collected by the Hon. Walter Mantell in 1850 were examined by 
Professor Morris and Professor Rupert Jones, by whom the Ototara limestone Avas, 
with doubt, referred to the Cretaceous or Eocene period* ; but it should be remembered 
that at this date the living fauna of the New Zealand coasts was imperfectly known. 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. vi, 1850, p. 324. 


111 186-") Sir James Hector placed the Moeraki Series below the Oamaru Series, 
and considered both to be Miocene. The volcanic tuft's and basalts he considered 

In 1869 Mr. C. Traill, after exaMiiniiig a collection of fossils he made at ^Vwanioa, 
came to the conclusion that the Awanioa beds were Miocene. f 

In 1870 Hector placed the Awanioa beds in his " Upper or Struthiolaria Series," 
and the Oamaru limestone, including tlie Hutchinson Quarry beds, in his Older or 
Ototara Series of "Tertiary" age. J 

In 1872 Captain Hutton referred the Ototara group to the Upper Eocene. § 

In 1873, li and again in 1875,^j Hutton placed the Oamaru Formation in the 
U])})er Eocene. 

In December, 187H, and .lamiary. 1877, .\. McKay examined the Oamaru 
district.** He maintained that the Hutchin.son Quarry beds were unconformable to 
the Ototara limestone. The former he jilaced in the Uj)per Eocene and the latter 
in the Cretaceo-Tertiary. The Awanioa beds were referred to the Lower Miocene. 

In 1882 Sir James Hector stated that the Ototara limestone is separated from 
the Hutchinson Quarry beds by a series of volcanic rocks which he thought belonged 
to the Cretaceo-Tertiarv period. ff 

In 1882 McKay again visited the Oamaru district, and in his report icfers the 
Oamaru Series to the Upper Eocene. JJ On this as on former occasions he does not 
recognizi' any stiatigraphical break between the Hutchinson Quarry and Awamoa 

In November, 1885, Hutton again examined the Oamaru district.§§ He concluded 
that there was no .stratigra])hical break between the ('retac(M)-Tertiary and the Upper 
Eocene formation of the (geological Survey.]] || 

In 1891, as a result of their examination of the s|)onge-icmains in the diatomaceous 
eartii-deposits in the Waiarekan. G. .1. Hindf and \\ . .M. Holmes^j^i placed the 
deposits in the Upper Eocene or Oligocene. 

In 1903 and 1904 the author examined the Oamaruian in Morth Otago and 
South Canterbury, and made considerable collections of fossils, which were submitted 
to Ca|)tain Hutton for identification. The jjroportion of living molluscs was found 
to range from 20 per cent, in the lower horizon to .30 pi-r cent, in the upper. The 
high |)roportion of living forms, aiul the probabilit}- that exhaustive collecting would 
increase rather thijn decrease that |)roportion, led the author to refer the whole of 
the Oamaruian System to the .Miocene period.*** 

In his Geoloff)/ of New Zealdiid. 191().ttt the author discusses the age of. the 
Oamaruian. He restates his views of 1905, and once more refers thi- system to the 
Miocene period. 

In 1910 F. Chapman, in a discu.ssion on the relationship of the Oamaruian to 
the .Miocene of .Vustralia, South .\merica. and Europe, considei=s the New Zealand 
Oamaruian to be of Miocene age.JJJ 

* Qiiini. Jour. Geol. Soe. Loud., vol. .\.\i. IHCi.'). p. 12S; with .section. 
t Ti'Di-s. S.Z. I ml., vol. ii. 1870, p. KiT. 

XCiil. ('olo)iiiil MiLseiiiii. IK70. [)|). 178, 179, I8!t. 

§ Hep. (Jeol. Kxplor. ihirtiuj IS7I /-J, No. 7. 1872, p. 184. 

II Cat. Teti. Molbixni uiul Kchinoderiiinld of S.Z., 1873. 

• Oeoloyy of OUigo, 1 87."), p. 21. 

** Rep. Oeol. K.rplor. dnritig 1S76-77, No. 10, 1877, pp. 48-t)() : with niaj). 

+t Bep. (ieol. Explor. /luring ISSL No. 14, 1882, p. xxvii. 

XX Bep. (Jeol. Kxplor. ihirituj /,V,V.3-^7. No. 16, 1884. pp. 48, (J.'J t)4. 

§<t Trnti-f. S.Z. [nul., vol. xi.x, 1887, pp. 4ir)-4.">0; with .sections. 

li j Lor. HI., p. 429. 

^'' Linn. Soc. .fmirn., Zoology, vol. xxiv, 1891, p. 179. 

*** Trans. X.Z. In-it., vol. xxxvii, 190o, pp. 490-.5.5I ; with map and sections. 

t++ James Park : The Oeologi/ of Xetr Ze/ilund, p. W.i. Christchurch, 1910. 

itt Ii> James Park, op, cil., pp. 122-123. 


Fn 1912 P. Marshall and George H. Uttley gathered a rich harvest of fossil 
molluscs from the Awamoan in Target Gully, Oamani ; and at the same time made 
smaller collections from other horizons of the Oamaruiau between Kakanui and 
the Waitaki.* They agree with the author in placing the Awamoan in the Miocene 

Further collections were made by Marshall and Uttley in 1913J and 1914,§ 
and these were identified by Suter, as were their collections of 1912. Their 
1913 collection from the Awamoan of Target GuUy contained 126 species of MoUusca, 
of which 36-3 per cent, are Recent. Their 1914 collection from the same place 
contained 155 species, of which 33 per cent, are living in the New Zealand seas. 

Uttley, in his paper|| on " The Geology of Kakanui '" (1915), concludes that 
there is no pakeontological ground for the recognition of a Cretaceo-Tertiarv system 
in the Oamani district, as previously urged by McKay, and reaffirms this belief in a 
paper on " The Brachiopod Localities of the Oamaru District."^ 

The collections made by the author during the progress of the present survey 
show that the lowermost marine horizon of the Oamaruiau — the Bortonian beds of the 
Waiarekan stage — contains 23 per cent, of living forms. There is a progressive increase 
of living species in the intermediate stages till the Awamoa is reached. Of 212 species 
of Mollusca identified by Suter from the Awamoan Target GuUy shell-bed no less 
than 71, or 33'5 per cent., are Recent. The pala?ontological evidence confirms the 
author's view expressed in 1905 that the whole of the Oamaruiau System must be 
referred to the Miocene period. The Bortonian contains many forms not known else- 
where in New Zealand, and perhaps tliis sub-stage and the Ngaparan ought to be leferred 
to tile Oligocene. 

Tabulab Statement of Oamaruian Stkata. 

stage-name. Description of Strata. 

Awamoan . . . . . . Soft marine sandstone, sandy clay.s. and blue clays with hard flaggy 

concretionary masses and hard calcareou.s band.s ; shelly sands. 

I'ljpcr Hutcliinsonian or Waitakian (llaiiconitio sandstone with hard calcareous bands. 


, ri i 1 ■ . I ^ ,1 (") (ilauconitic "reensands. 

Lower Hutcliinsonian (sub-sta^e) ^ ;i: ,, i . ,, ,,■ , 

I (0) Conglomerate (basaltic). 

I (a) Deborah limestone, in places intercalated with tuffs. 

I (b) Upper Oamaru stone . . . . i Around (Jainaru these 

Utotaran . . . . - (r) Kakanui tuffs and breccias (f(jssilifcrous), | ■ are replaced Ijy tuffs, 

I or marly clays . . . . | tachylitic breccias, and 

\ {d) Lower Oamaru stone . . . . ) basaltic lava-flows. 

(formal Marine Snccession. ) ( Pyroclastic Succession.) 

I (a) Thin-bedded marly clays. (a) Tuffs and basalts ; in places 

I (b) Soft brown sandstones. pillow-lavas. 

W i- ekan ^'^ Hard Calcareous glauconitic (6) Calcareous diatomaceous earth. 

sandstone bed = Bortonian. (c) Tuffs and basalts. 
I (d) SUiceous diatomaceous earth. 

' (e) Tuffs and basalts. 

I (a) Limonitic quartzose conglomerates. 
Na n ran ^ ^^^ Loose incoherent grey quartzose sands and fine quartzose drifts^ 

° ^ ' ' " "'i with seam of lignite. 

[ (c) Quartzose and sandstone conglomerates. 

* Tra/w.-. ^.Z. Inst., vol. xlv, 1913, pp. 297-307. 

t Loc. cit., p. 299. 

% Tram. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlvi, 1914, pp. 279-28L 

§ Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. xlvii, 1915, pp. 377-387. 

il Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlviii, 1916, pp. 19-27. 

1[ With the consent of Mr. Uttley, Dr. Thomson has submitted a copy of the manuscript of this paper 
to the author, containing complete lists of the fossil brachiopods identified by Dr. Thomson and lists of the 
raoUuscan collections. Copies of the geological sections were not forwarded. This paper contains an accurate 
and painstaking description of most of the important Tei'tiary rock-exposures in the Oamaru district. 


Thickness of Strata 

( I . ) Awamoan 

(2.) Hutchinsonian — 

Upper oi- Waitakian 

Lower (greensands) . . 
(3) ( Hotaian- - 

Kakanui (or Deborali) limestone 

Kakanui tulis 

Oainam stone 
(4 ) Waiarekan — 

Normal marine 

(5.) Ngaparaii 

20 ft. to 80 ft. 

6 ft,, to 40 ft.. 
4 ft. to 6 ft.. 

2 ft. to 22 ft. 
Oft. to 150ft. 

20 ft. to no ft. 

120 ft. 
300 ft. 
60 ft. to 320 ft. 




Character of Rocks and Distribution . . . . . . ■ • • • • ■ . . 30 

Conditions of Deposition . . . . .30 

Flora . . . • ■ ■ • • • •*! 

(a) Limonitic qiiaitzose cougloineiate. 

[h) Loose incoherent j^rey qnartzose sands and fine quartz drifts, with 

seam of lignite, 
(c) Quartzose and sand.stone conglomerates. 

Character of Rocks and Distribution. 
These rocks are strongly developed between Peebles and Ngapara. At Big Hill they 
are about 320 ft. thick, but westward of this they appear to become thinner as they 
approach the ancient strand on which they were laid down. 

The basal conglomerates arc well exposed in a slip on the face of the high-level 
terrace immediately opposite Aitchison's Railway-station in the Waitaki Valley, some 
two miles from Peebles. At this place the mica-schist is overlain by a coarse grey 
sandstone conglomerate, of which a thickness of 40 ft. is exposed in the slip near the 
Oamaru Borough water-race. The material composing this conglomerate is mainly 
decomposed greywacke. Small well-rounded pebbles of quartz, flaky pieces of hard 
black clavstone with rounded edges, and flat pieces of siliceous schist or fissile quartzite, 
usually decomposed, are also fairly abundant. The larger constituents are set in a 
matrix of sand and grit. Irregular beds or lenses of sandy material are also present, 
as well as thin hard limonitic bands. 

Scattered throughout the conglomerate there are a few limonitic nodules. The 
upper 20 ft. of the deposit is coloured brown with linionite. The lower portion is 
grey or greyish-vellow. No organic remains were found except a few indistinct broken 
plant-remains in the sandy layers. 

An outcrop of mica-schist occurs about 40 yards to the west of the conglomerate 
outcrop, but the actual contact is obscured by surface soils and Pleistocene high-level 
gravels. The conglomerate dips south-west at an angle of 8°. On the south-west side 
of Big Hill the rocks underlying the seam of brown coal or lignite consist of incoherent 
quartzose sands and grits. These rest on a small patch of the Palaeozoic rocks; but 
they cannot be considered the lowermost member of the coal-measures, as the schist 
outcrop appears to be a small peak or isolated ridge .surrounded and surmounted by 
Middle Cainozoic quartzose drift. 

The summit of Big Hill and the tops of the neighbouring hills are surmounted by 
a protecting cap of hard coarse limonitic conglomerate dipping gently towards the east. 
In the hills Iving close to Peebles the softer incoherent drifts underlying the hard 
limonitic conglomerate band have been worn away, with the result that large masses 
of the conglomerate some acres in extent, being left unsupported, have toppled over 
bodily, and look like rocks that have been sharply tilted by some earth-movement. 

Conditions of Depo.sition. 
The Ngaparan coal-measures consist of detritus derived from the subaerial 
denudation of the neighbouring land by streams that discharged their load along the floor 


of the sea on a slowly sinking strand. The lowermost deposits filled up the hollows 
and irregularities of the sea-floor, and covered the submerged ridges and reefs that 
existed ofi' the shores of the ancient sea. As tlie sinking of the land progressed the 
streams pushed tiieir material fartlier and farther seaward, till at length a wide stretch 
of land was reclaimed fr(jm the .sea. The downward movement of the land was now 
arrested for a time. \'egetation crept down from the higher ground and established 
itself on the newly reclaimed maritime flats. In marshy hinds bordered by the 
warm Miocene seas the vegetation grew luxuriantly. The lengtli of this period of quiet 
growth is unknown ; that it was con.siderable is certain, as the tJiickness of decaying 
vegetable mattei' that accumulated was sufficient to form a seam of lignite 20 ft. thick 
in places. When favoured with abundant moisture and wainitli. |)eat bogs are now 
known, as the result of researcli in Europe, to accumulate at a relatively rapid rate — 
that is, several feet of thickness may gather in a century. Obviously, the lignite 
horizon represents but a mere fraction of the Midd'e (,'ainozoic. 

The swampy jungle -covered lands bordering the coast -line were intersected by 
numerous creeks and deep-water channels, which preMMited the accumulation of a 
continuous sheet of coal-forming vegetation. Along tlie i)anks of these ancient creeks 
the lignite thins rapidly, and finally disappears. 

In the lignite there are sometimes found isolated well-roiuuled pebl)les of ([uartz 
ranging ui size from i in. to 2 in. in diameter. On rare occasions a small number of 
pebbles may occur close togethei-. Some of these pebbles may have been dropped by 
birds, but probably the majority of them were brought up tiom the subsoil by the 
roots of overturned trees. 


The coarse character of the sediments did not favour the preservation of recognizable 
plant-remains in this area. The flora of the Oamaruian lignitic series will have to be 
described from some other district. In his Outline of New Zealand Geology, 1886. p. 60, 
Sir James Hector figures a palm-nut from the Ngaparan beds as exposed at the end of 
the Livingstone Tunnel, on the Windsor-Oamaru railway-line. At this place the shales 
contain numerous fo-ssil fruits, none of which have been described.* 

From what is known of the Oamaruian lignitic coal-measures elsewhere in New 
Zealand, it is almost certain that the Miocene lands of this region were clothed with 
a forest vegetation which included representatives of the oak, elm, beech, laurel, myrtle, 
cinnamon, and Amucaiia. With these grew numerous ])alms and ferns. In the shales 
and lignites fossil fruits of proteaceous and coniferous trees are abundant. 

* James Park : He.j,. Oeol. Kxphr. (luring IHH6-87, No. 18, 1887, p. l:W. 




Character and Distribution of Rocks . . 32 

Normal Marine Waiarekan . . . . 32 

Bortonian Fauna (Lower Waiarekan) . . 34: 

Upper Marine Waiarekan . . 35 

Waiarekan Pyroclastic Beds . . 36 

Section from Boatman's Harbour to 

Cape Wanbrow . . . . . . 36 

Section at Boatman's Harbour . . 38 

Relationship of Cape Oamaru Tufts to the 

Ototaran . . . . . . 39 

Shirley Creek Section North of Rifle Butts 40 

Confirmatory Sections . . . . 40 

Page . Page 

Shirley (Jreek Section North of Rifle Butts 
Confirmatory Sections —continued. 

Section near Maheno Flour- mill . . 43 
Section from Big Hill to Landoii 
Creek . . . . . . . . 45 

Section on East Bank of Lower Knd 

of Grant's Creek . . 45 

Section on North Side of North-west 
Branch of Landon Creek . . . . 46 

Diatomaceous Earth-deposits intercalated 

in Waiareka TufiEs . . . . . . 47 

Section at old Quarry, Awamoa Creek, i Confirmatory Sections . . . . 47 

near Deborah . . . . . . 40 ' Section at old Quarry a Mile South 

Section at Trig. V. near Teschemaker's 
Homestead . . . . 42 

Section in Railway-cutting South of 
Teschemaker's . . . . . . 42 

Section from Kakanui River to To- 
tara , . . . . . . . 43 

of Round Hill, Trig. K . . . . 47 

Section at Cormack's Siding . . 48 

Section at Big Flume Creek, Papa- 

kaio . . . . . . . . 48 

The Waiarekan Diatoms . . . . 4ii 

The Waiarekan Sponge-remains . . 49 


(a) Thin-bedded marly clays. 

(b) Sandstones with fossiliferous flaggy concretions and hard 

calcareou^s bands = Bortonian. 


(a) Tufis and basalts ; in places pillow-lavas. 

(b) Calcareous diatomaceous earth. 

(c) Tuffs and basalts. 

{d) Siliceous diatomaceous earth. 
(e) Tuffs and basalts. 

Character and Distribution of Rocks. 

From Oamaru to the south of Kakanui, and from Oamaru to the cross-roads near 
the head of Horse Creek, which rises at the foot of Big Hill, the Ngaparan 
quartzose coal-measures are followed by the pyroclastic series of deposits ; but on the 
north side of the Kakanui, about opposite and for a few miles below the mouth 
of the Kauroo River, and at Papakaio, Windmill Creek (opposite Aitchison's Railway- 
station), and between Black's and Borton's the Ngaparan is followed conformably by 
ordinary marine sediments. 

Normal Marine Waiarekan. 

In the Kakanui Valley the Waiarekan strata consist of thin-bedded marly clays 
that are underlain conformably by soft sandstones. These rocks are well exposed in 
the steep cliffs fringing the north bank of the Kakanui River from a point about 
five miles from the Maheno to near the mouth of the Kauroo River. Along the 
north bank of the Kakanui River the thin-bedded marly clays are seen to emerge 
from below the Waiarekan tuffs, which here reach their westward limits. In their 
upper portion the marly clays are intercalated with thin beds of black palagonite tuff. 

Half a mile farther up the valley the marly clays are underlain by the soft sand- 
stones which form a long line of steep cliffs fronting the Kakanui River, ranging 


from 30 ft. to 100 ft. high. These sandstones are glauconitic, slightly micaceous, and 
yellowish-brown in colour. In places they contain large calcareous concretions that 
are usually fossUiferous. 

A few chains south of the mouth of Lady Jane Creek, which flows past Trigono- 
metrical Station F (210 ft.), close to the edge of the Kakanui River, the sandstones 
are intruded by a dyke-like sill of dolerite which occupies the higher portion of the 
cliffs, going down the valley for a distance of about 550 yards. When viewed in 
mass this rock has a pale greenish-grey colour and granular texture. On weathered 
surfaces it assumes a spheroidal structure. It is usually much decomposed, and the 
surface is pitted with cavities due to the removal of the decomposition-products of 
the augite. In thin section the rock is seen to be a holocrystalline aggregate of 
plagioclase feldspar and pale-green augite ; structure, ophitic. The feldspar is usually 
clear ; it is probably anorthite. The augite occurs in large crystals that are in many 
cases penetrated by strong laths of feldspar ; in the samples of rock broken 
from the outcrop it is usually decomposed into serpentinous products ; but even 
where highly decomposed the interpenetrating feldspars are fresh and clear. Spines 
of epidote, iron-ore (mostly the {)eroxide), grains of calcite, and a little quartz are 
present as decomposition-products of the augite. 

At Enfield and many places on both sides of the Waiareka Stream there are 
prominent outcrops of dyke-like masses or sills of dolerite that penetrate the 
Waiarekan sandstones, and reach upwards into the Waiarekan tuffs that north and 
east of Enfield are intercalated between the Waiarekan sandstones and the Oamaru 

The dolerite near Enfield Railway-station is a dark-grey or almost black rock 
with a fine but easily distinguishable crystalline structure. It penetrates the Waiarekan 
sandstone, as shown in Fig. 2. 




Tt-ajQjYvoLv l-ii--LJi_-i_<_:_JUi 

^ , a^J fTt:^:^^ . x . x . x - 

1 -^ 

1 -Roaud ci-n ft^/ ' ' ^ ' " ' "" 

; tJ 

ip >^%° /"rr-T-T-T ^ X. X 

i Ak 

7, I '. r^ ^^^ ^^* ^ X . X . X ' X . 


^ x/~^ ^ " S-r X . X X « X » X . X 
jS<SI^^-^Q- T— 'X -XoX'X vX.XsX 

W o. a. Z? E 

Fio. 2.— Section from Enfield to the South-east. 

(Distance, one niiJc.) 

n. Micaceous sanilstono, pebbly and gritty. d. Dolerite dyke. 

b. Waiareka tufts. t. Slip and talus. 

r. Oamaru stone. 

When examined in thin slice the Enfield dolerite is .seen to consist of a 
holocrystalline aggregate of plagioclase and augite. intergrown so as to develop an 
ophitic structure. The specific gravity of the rock is 2-94. 

At the old coal-mine near Borton's, usually called Black Point Coal-mine, the 
lignitic beds are followed conformably by a soft brown sandstone, which is interbedded 
with a band of hard calcareous glauconitic sandstone varying from 6 in. to 2 ft. in 
thickness. This band is usually coarse in texture, and in places gritty and pebbly. 
It lies 30 ft. above the seam of lignite, and its importance depends on the circum- 
stance that it is fossiliferous. 

The fossiliferous sandstone is overlain conformably by 130 ft. of brown sandy 
beds that are slightly glauconitic. Overlying these come 15 ft. of greyish sandy beds 

3 — Oamaru. 


that in their upper 5 ft. pass into glauconitic greensands. The latter are followed 
by the Waitaki stone, a yellowish-brown calcareous sandstone containing thin irregular 
layers that are somewhat more calcareous, and consequently harder, than the general 
body of the sandstone. 

BoRTONiAN Fauna of Lower Waiarekan. 

Collections of fossils from the sandstone-beds overlying the lignite at Black Point 
Coal-mine were made by McKay in 1876,* and by the author in 1904,"j" and again 
in 1915 during the progress of the present survey. The Mollusca in the . author's 
1904 collection were named by Captain Hutton. The McKay collection of 1876 and the 
author's collection of 1915 have recently been examined by Mr. Suter. Many changes 
have been made in the nomenclature since 1904 ; and as some of the identifications 
made at that time by Hutton are doubtful, no account is taken of the 1904 collection. 

The species of Mollusca identified by Suter in McKay's 1876 and the author's 
1915 collections are given below — • 

Clio (Styliola) rangiana (Tate). Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.). 

Heliacus imperfectus Sut. Cylichnella soror Sut. 

-^Turritella carlottce Watson. CncuUcEa alta Sow. 

Turritella ambulacrum Sow. Cucullcea australis (Hutt.). 

Polinices sp. (young shells only). Leda semiteres Hutt. 

Struthiolaria tuherculata concinna Sut. ^Poroleda lanceolata (Hutt.). 

Galeodes n. sp. Melina zealandica Sut. 

Latirus elatior Sut. Limopsis catenata Sut. 

■^Siphonalia mandarina (Duclos). Pecten hochstetteri Zitt. 

-^Siphonalia nodosa (Mart.). Lithophaga nelsoniana Sut. 

Parvisipho n. sp. (Genus new to fauna). ^Spisula ordinaria (Smith). 

Rapana neozelanica Sut. Crassatellites amplus (Zitt.). 

Lapparia hebes (Hutt.). -^Ostrea corrugata Hutt. (?). 

Surcula n. sp. Anomia huttoni Sut. 

Surcula serotina Sut. -f- Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 

Sinum (Eunaticina) elegans (?) Sut. {Am- ^Dosinia greyi Zitt. 

pullina of hand-list). Chione chiloensis truncata Sut. 

Euthriofusus spinosus Sut. Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Streptochetus n. sp. (Genus new to fauna). Cardium waitakiense Sut. 

Fulgoraria arabica turrita (?) Sut. Corbula caniculata Hutt. 

Athleta necopinala Sut. Panope worthingtoni Hutt. 

Lyria n. sp. (Genus new to fauna). Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

H- Throughout this bulletin the mark (-f-) prefixed to the name of a fossil indicates 
that the species named is hving. 

The Bortonian is the lowest marine fauna of the Oamaruian in North Otago, 
if not in New Zealand. It is specially distinguished by the large proportion of 
gasteropods, many of which are interesting forms. Parvisipho n. sp. (McKay, 1876 
collection), Streptochetus n. sp., and Lyria n. sp. (Park collection, 1915) are genera new 
to the New Zealand fauna. 

Of the forty-three species enumerated above, eight (or 18-6 per cent.) are Recent. 

In the same horizon there occur the remains of a large crab, Schizaster rotundatus 
Zittel(?), Flabellum radians Tenison- Woods, Balanophyllia hectori Tenison- Woods, and 
Balanus plates. 

* A. McKay : Rep. Oeol. Exphr. during 1S76-77, No. 10, 1877, p. 52. 
t James Park : Tran.'f. N.Z. Inst, vol. xxxvii, 1905, pp. 520-521. 


Near Windmill Creek, immediately opposite Aitchison's Railway-station, and about 
a mile from Peebles, there occur on the south bank of the Oamaru Borough water-race 
thin flaggy masses of hard blue mudstone and hard calcareous brown sandstone full 
of fossil molluscs. These fossiliferous slabs occur in brown sandstones about 80 ft. above 
the lignitic quartzose beds of the Ngaparan stage, and may represent a somewhat 
higher horizon than the Bortonian. The molluscs collected here were, — 

Turritella concava Hutt. Dosinia magna (?) Hutt. jun. 

— Nticula strangei A. Ad. Chione chiloensis truncata Sut. 

Cucullcea alta (?) Sow. Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Melina zealandica (?) Sut. Cardium spatiosum (?) Hutt. 

Crassatellites amplus (^) Zitt. -^Psammobia lineolata Gray. 

^Zenatia acinaces (Q. k G.). ^Panope zelandica Gray. 
-^ Dosinia greyi Zitt. 

On tlie banks of the Oamaru Borough water-race, at a point about half a mile 
below the Papakaio Church, there occur numerous flaggy and nodular masses of hard 
calcareous mudstone full of fossil shells. These masses could not be traced to their 
source on account of the overlying sheet of high-level gravels. The underlying 
rocks for a considerable area around the bend of the water-race, where the fossiliferous 
masses occur, are the quartzose sandstones, grits, and conglomerates of the lignitic 
coal-measures ; and, with the exception of these and the flaggy masses themselves, 
there are no othe^ members of the Oamaruian present in this neighbourhood. The 
masses trail down the slope below the water-race from the edge of the terrace at 
one place. Their mode of occurrence would tend to show that a patch of the Lower 
Waiarekan occurs here below the terrace-gravels. The water-race is excavated in 
sandy clays, and it may be from these that the fossiliferous blocks are derived. 

The molluscs identified in a collection made here are, — 

Turritella cavershatnen^is Harris. Lima colorata Hutt. 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. Crassatellites sp. 

^Calyptra;a alta (Hutt.). ^Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 

Crepidula gregaria (?) Sow. Cgtherea sulcata (Hutt.). 

Polinices gibhosus (Hutt.). -^Cgtherea subsulcata (Sut.). 

Epitonium sp. (?). Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Siphonalia subnodosa (?) (Hutt.). Cardium huttoni (?) von Iher. 

Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.). -^Psammobia lineolata (?) Gray. 

Cucullcea alta Sow. Corbula canaliculata Hutt. 

-^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). P.anope worthingtoni Hutt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Many of the determinations were based on fragments only. Of the twenty - two species 
given above, five (equal to 23 per cent.) are living. 

The Waiarekan sandstones, which form a line of steep cliffs on the north bank of 
the Kakanui River from opposite the mouth of the Kauroo River to Black Head, a mile 
and a half farther up the valley, contain hard concretionary glauconitic masses, from 
which a few shells in a fragmentary condition were obtained at the mouth of Lady 
Jane Creek, a mile above the Kauroo River. Among these Suter identified Surcula 
Jusijormis (?) Hutton, and Pholadomya neozekmica (?) Hutton. 

Upper Marine Waiarekan. 

The soft glauconitic sandstones opposite the mouth of the Kauroo River are overlain 
conformably by thin-bedded marly clays that in their higher portion are intercalated 
3* — Oamaru. 


with thin layers of black palagonite tu£E. Lying conformably on the marly clays and 
tufis comes the Oamaru stone. Seaward, towards Maheno, the marly clays are replaced 
by tuffs. 

Since they lie immediately below the Oamaru stone, the marly clays may be taken 
as the representative of the Upper Marine Waiarekan in the Kakanui Valley. The only 
fossils found in these clays were some Foraminifera, among which the genera Cristellaria, 
Amphistegina., Textularia, and Dentalina were recognized. 

Lying between the Lower Waiarekan (Bortonian), at the old coal-mine near 
Borton's, and the greensands (Lower Hutchinsonian) there are some 130 ft. of slightly 
glauconitic sandy beds, the lower portion of which must represent the Upper 
Waiarekan, and the upper the Oamaru stone. To the south-eastward these sandy beds 
are replaced by tuffs and the Oamaru stone. At Borton's they contain no fossils ; but 
the Upper Waiarekan tuffs are fossiliferous in many places. Hence for the contem- 
porary fauna of the Upper Waiarekan we must depend on the pyroclastic succession. 

Waiarekan Pyroclastic Beds. 

Less than a mile south-south-east of Big Hill, near Peebles, the Waiarekan is 
completely replaced by tuffs and basaltic lavas that spread out and become thicker 
towards the coast. At the Teaneraki escarpment the tuffs are nearly 200 ft. thick ; 
at the Cave Valley escarpment, near Enfield, over 300 ft. thick ; and at Cape Wanbrow, 
over 600 ft. thick — though it is possible that a portion of the latter may belong to the 

The lower portion of the tuffs is barren of organic remains, but in their upper 
portion along the western rim of the volcanic zone there are two horizons of diato- 
maceous earth that probably mark periods of partial or complete cessation of volcanic 
activity. In the Cape Wanbrow section and at Deborah the tuffs immediately below 
the Oamaru stone are richly fossiliferous, which may be taken as evidence that the 
waning phases of the volcanic activity were feeble. The two limestone bands {h^ and h- , 
Plate II) interbedded with the tuffs in the Cape Wanbrow section doubtless represent 
two short periods of repose. These bands are composed mainly of Polyzoa. They are 
brecciated with angular blocks of vesicular basalt, which would indicate that the 
periods of repose were broken by sharp explosive outbursts which scattered blocks 
of basalt over the neighbouring sea-floor. 

Fauna. — The fauna of the Upper Waiarekan comprises numerous molluscs, 
brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, Foraminifera, diatoms, and radiolarians. Brachiopods, 
which become a prominent feature of the Ototaran and Hutchinsonian, make their 
first appearance in the Upper Waiarekan. 

Section jrom Boatman's Harbour to Cape Wanbrow. 

The unbroken line of high perpendicular sea-cliffs between Boatman's Harbour 
and Cape Wanbrow runs almost at right angles to the strike of the rocks, and 
presents the most complete section of the Waiarekan succession to be found anywhere 
in the Oamaru district (see Plate II). 

From the breakwater to Boatman's Harbour, a distance of 270 yards, the cliffs 
are composed of tachylitic breccia with a hard limestone matrix. At Boatman's 
Harbour the tachylitic breccia is underlain by a series of well-bedded fossiliferous 
clays, tuffs, and limestone. Below these beds there lies a thick flow of basaltic pillow- 
lava (y, Plate II). Underlying the pQlow-lava for a distance of 340 yards there 
is a great thickness of well-bedded tuffs5~(beds g, Plate II). These tuffs vary in 
colour from pale-grey andjbluish-grey Pmuds?|*to dark yellowish-brown or dark greenish- 
brown tuffs, of texture varying from fine grits to coarse breccias. The coarse tuffs 

Plate IV. 

A. V. Giffonl, p/mlu] 


Jfintfs I'firk, fihuto J 

B. 1*ii.i.o\v-i,ava. Boatman's Harbouh, near Oamaru. 
Geol. Bull. No. 20.] \Tn face page 36. 


often contain angular blocks of vesicular basalt that are in some places scattered 
irregularly throughout the mass, in others arranged in more or less well-defined lines.^ j 

These bedded tuffs contain two thin limestone-beds, (h^ and h'^). Bed h^ lies 17 ft. 
below the pillow-lava, from which it is separated by beds g, consisting of thin-bedded 
dark bluish-grey drab-brown tuffs that exhibit well-preserved ripple-marks. In these 
tuffs there was found a single example of a large Terebratula that closely resembles 
Liolhyrella hoehmi Thomson, which is abundant in the tuffs immediately underlying 
the Kakanui limestone. 

Limestone-bed h- lies from 100 ft. to 150 ft. below bed /*'. The tuffs between h^ 
and h'^ show conspicuous evidence of current-bedding. The angle of dip of bed h^ 
is 18°, and of bed h'- 34°. The result of this difference in the angle of dip is that 
as they rise upward in the cliff-face they rapidly approach one another. Although 
only a few inches thick — 12 in. at the most — these limestone-beds are brecciated with 
angular blocks of vesicular basalt. 

From the lower limestone band (bed h'^) Uttley* collected, — 

Emarginula wannonensis Harris. Liothyrella oamarutica (Boeliin). 

Siphonalia sp. Liothyrella boehmi Thomson. 

Denlalium solidum Hutt. Terebratulina suesui (Hutt.j.f 

Pecten hutchinsoni Hutt. /Etheia (jaulteri (Morris). 

■- Siphonium planatum Sut. Hemithyris sp., cf. squamosa (Hutt.). 

Both bands of limestone are composed mainly of Polyzoa. 

A marked stratigraphical discordance exists between the lower limestone band {h-) 
and the underlying tuffs. The limestone-bed and overlying tuffs strike 101°-102° 
(magnetic), and dip north at an angle of 34°, while the tuffs below the limestone 
strike 11°-12° fmagnetic), or at right angles to the limestone. As one proceeds still 
farther southward towards Cape Wanbrow the bedded tuffs (</) are found to rest on 
coarse dirty bluish-green tuffs that exhibit no bedding. These occupy the sea-cliff's 
for nearly 300 yards, when they are suddenly cut off by a fault, south of which the 
cliffs are composed of well-bedded tuffs for a distance of 170 yards, when they are in 
their turn cut oft" by a basaltic dyke which is also a fault-plane. From the basaltic 
dyke southward to Cape Wanbrow the cliff's are composed of coarse dirty bluish- 
green tuft's that show no bedding-planes. Near the centre of the anticline one of the tuff 
l)ands is confusedly contorted, as if it alone had been subjected to lateral compression. 

The basaltic dyke strikes nearly north and south, and runs across the Wanbrow 
promontory, appearing on both sea-faces. It varies from 3 in. to 12 in. wide, and 
stands almost vertically. Considerable fault-displacement has taken place on its 
south wall, with the result that the tuffs on that side have been crushed and shattered 
for a width of 1.5 ft., as seen on the south side of Cape Wanbrow. This fault was 
first described by the author in 1904. J At that time the dyke lying on the north wall 
was not noticed, owing to intense weathering. 

On the north side of Cape Wanbrow this dyke is seen to be only one of many 
thin vein-like dykes of basalt that in this neighbourhood intersect the tuffs in all 
directions (Plate III). They are well expo.sed on the broad rock-platform of marine 
erosion lying below high-water mark. This platform extends from Cape Wanbrow to 
Oamaru Breakwater. 

To the .southward of Cape Wanbrow the coast-line runs almost due west for 
260 yards, then south-west for 500 yards, and beyond that westward for half a mile. 

* G. H. Uttley : " The Brachiopod Localities of the Oamaru District " (MS.), 1915. 
t Recorded by Uttley as T. oamarutica Boehm. This species, however, is regarded by Thomson 
as a synonym of T. suessi (Hutton). 

J James Park : Trans. S.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii, 1905, p. 515. Fault is shown in Fig. 7. 


A generalized section showing the arrangement of the tuffs and overlying beds 
between Cape Wanbrow and the Rifle Butts is shown in Fig. 3. South of the basaltic 
dyke {k, Fig. 3) the well-bedded tuffs (g of Fig. 3 and of Plate II) dip at first east- 
ward at an angle of 30° ; but to the southward they appear in the sea-cliffs as horizontal 
strata, due to the change in the trend of the coast-line. 

B-ushy Beobchu Cape Wccribr^ 

Shvrley Ch. 

Ncuge Msoi,d, 


Fig. 3. — Section feom Cape Wanbeow to Rifle Butts. 

a. Pleistocene silts. /. Yellowish-brown coralline tufis 

b. Raised beach, 12 ft. (/. Well-bedded tufis. 

.c. Awamoan beds. /. TufEs with no bedding. 

d. Hutchinsonian beds. k. Basaltic dj'ke and fault. 

e. Ototaran beds. 

the sea- 

The relationship of the Waiarekan tuffs to the Ototaran is well seen in 
cliffs near Shirley Creek, 500 yards north of the Rifle Butts (see Fig. 3 and 
section at Rifle Butts, Plate IV). 

Section at Boatman's Harbour. 

The relationship of the pillow-lava to the overlying fossiliferous beds at this place 
is shown in Plate II, and in Fig. 4, which shows the beds on a larger scale. 

a. Slope deposit. 

b. Pleistocene silts. 

c. Raised beach, 12 ft. 

d. Tachylitic breccia. 
di. Basahic breccia in tuff matrix ; ' 2 ft. to 4 ft. 

e. Greenish tuffs passing upward into bujEE -coloured 

tuffs of fine texture ; 4 ft. 
/. Green tuffs with broken shells and corals. 
g. Yellowish-brown tufaceous limestone, from 3 ft. 

to 3 ft. 3 in. 

d7 df^ 

Pig. 4. — Section across Boatman's Harbouk. 
(Scale, horizontal and vertical, 30 ft. = 1 in. ) 

k. Blue thin-bedded mudstonc; at base interbedded 

with two thin bands of hard limestone each 

2 in. to 4 in. thick, the lower pebbly and 

/. Dirty-brown calcareous tuffs; 15ft. to 18ft. 
j. Current - bedded tuffs, greyish-green in colour, 

coarse in lower 5 ft., finer in higher 4 ft. ; 9 ft. 
k. Basaltic pUlow-lava, with fossiliferous limestone 

between pillows. 

The pillow-lava shows a thickness of 85 ft. or 90 ft. It was described as such 
by the author* in 1905, and this was the first record of the occurrence of this 
peculiar lava structure in New Zealand. The pillow-lava as seen in the cliff-face 
consists of spheroidal and pillow-form masses ranging mainly from ■ about 8 in. to 14 ft. 

* James Park : Trans. X.Z. Inst., vol. xxxvii, 1905, p. 613. 


in diameter. In the platform worn in the pillow-lava, sack-shaped masses varying from 
2 ft. to 6 ft. or even 8 ft. long are common. The spaces between the pillows are filled 
with limestone or hard calcareous fossiliferous sandstone veined with calcite. In some 
cases the pillows are completely surrounded with sedimentary material and secondary 
calcite (A, Plate V). The central portion of each pillow is an olivine dolerite con- 
sisting of feldspar, olivine, and augite ; while the outer skin is a black basic glass 
from ^ in. to I in. thick. In thin slice this vitreous crust is seen to consist of 
dark-brown, with numerous plagioclase laths and scattered grains of olivine. 
The gradual change from the glassy to the crystalline rock can be easily traced in 
the pillows exposed in section in the cliff-face. 

From the interstitial limestone in the pillow-lava Uttley* collected Trochus sp., 
Turritella sp., Polinices hittoni v.on Iher., Lima hullata (Born), Lima lima (L.), Ostrea sp., 
Cardium sp., Hemithyris sp. c/. squamosa (Hutton), and the coral Isis sp. (?). In 
addition to these the author found numerous Polyzoa, many examples of a small echinoderm 
resembling Gagaria, and Foraminifera. 

The current-bedded tuffs immediately overlying the pillow-lava are not fossiliferous ; 
but from the calcareous tuffs (bed i of Fig. 4) were collected Epitonium lyratum 
(Zitt.), Venericardia difficilis (Desh.), Ostrea sp., Cucullcea alta Sow., and Diplodonta 
zelandica (Gray). In this bed Uttley (I.e.) found Lima je^reysiana Tate. 

From the up])er of the two thin limestone - bed.s at base of bed h, Fig. 4, 
Uttley {I.e.) collected E})ilonium lyratum (Zitt.), Pecten hutchinsoni Hutt., Pecten delicatulus 
Hutt., Terebratidina sue.'isi (Hutt.), Liothyrella boelimi ('.) Thomson, and Liothyrclla 
oamarutica (Boehm). Additional forms collected by the author were Polinices sp., 
Glycymeris sp., Cardium huttoni (?) von Iher., and Neothyris uttleyi Thomson (MS.). 

From bed </, Fig. 4, l^ttley {I.e.) collected Limopsis aurita (Brocchi), Pecten 
delicatulus Hutt., Lima jeffreysiana Tate, Ostrea sp., Venericardia difficilis (Desh.), 
Venericardia zelandica (Desh.), Protocardia pulchella (Gray), Terebratulina stiessi (Hutt.). 

Relationship of Cape Oamaru Tuffs to the Gtotaran. 

Between the Rifle Butts and Boatman's Harbour — a shallow cliff-bound cove 
250 yards south of the breakwater — the Miocene strata are arranged in a great 
anticlinal fold, with a minor synclinal fold on the south limb of the anticline between 
Shirley Creek and Nag's Head (Fig. 3). 

At Shirley Creek the Waiarekan tuff.s arc overlain unconforniably by the Oamaru 
stone and associated bed.s (Plate IV). The stratigraphical discordance is well .seen 
in the cliff-face and on the beach platform, on which the divergent lines of outcrop 
are conspicuously outlined at low water (see B, Plate VI). The unconformity cannot 
be regarded as other than intra-formational, and an evidence that the rapidly formed 
and loosely compacted Waiarekan ash-beds were unable to offer much resistance to the 
prevailing coastal currents, and at the same time were affected by local earth-movements 
arising from their nearness to a centre of volcanic activity. 

On the north side of the anticline the Oamaru building-stone is absent, and, if 
not wholly, is partly represented by the fossiliferou.s tuffs and limestones at Boatman's 
Harbour. The brachiopods from the upper of the two limestone bands at that cove 
are mostly those of the Kakanui limestone horizon of the Ototaran, as also are the 
brachiopods from the lower of the two limestone-beds underlying the pillow-lava. 

The stratigraphical unconformity between fi^ and the underlying tuffs (Plate II) 
may pos.sibly represent the break seen at Shirley Creek (Plate IV and Fig. 3). This 

• G. H. Uttley : " The Brachiopod Localities of the Oamaru District " (MS.), 1915. 


break, as it appears near Boatman's Harbour (Plate II) and at Shirley Creek (Plate IV), 
cannot be held to possess any great significance, as it is apparently due to contem- 
poraneous erosion. 

Shirley Creek Section North of Kifle Butts. 

The Waiarekan tuffs between Nag's Head to a point a little south of Shirley 
Creek contain two or three thin fossiliferous bands (beds v, t, and r, Plate IV). Beds t 
and r may possibly represent the same horizon. The yellowish-brown tuffs marked s 
are largely composed of broken Polyzoa. Molluscs are also present, but are too frag- 
mentary for identification. 

From bed v were collected Venericardia difficilis (Desh.) and Liothyrella oamarutica 
(Boehm). Many more forms occur in this . bed, but the matrix — secondary calcite — 
is so hard, and the rock-exposure so small, that no success was achieved in the 
extraction of recognizable forms. 

Bed t, though thin, is softer and sandy, and from it were collected, — 

-^Astrcea heUotropium (?) (Mart.). ~ Mytilus caniculatus (?) Mart. 

Calliostoma acutangulum Sut. Folinices ovatus (Hutt.). 

■^Dosinia greyi (?) Zitt. Struthiolaria tuberculata (?) Hutt, 

Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.). Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Ficus parvus Sut. Venericardoa purpurata (Desh.). 
-^ Glycymeris laticostata (Q. & G.). Young specimens having a few radial 
ribs more than the typical form. 

The only brachiopod from this bed was Terebratidina suessi (Hutton), which is 
abundant. Polyzoa are numerous, and a small echinoderm also occurs. 

From bed r, which lies immediately below the Ototaran beds, were collected, — 

Ancilla hebera (Hutt.). 
AstrcBa heliotropium (Mart.). 
Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & G.). 
Cardita calyculata (L.) (new for the 

CrasscUellites amplus (Zitt.). 
■Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 
Cytherea sulcata (?) (Hutt.) (fragment). 
Diplodonta zelandica (Gray). 
Lima color ata Hutt. 
Mactra attenuata Hutt. 
■Mytilus magellanicus Lamk. 

Ostrea wuellerstorfi Zitt. (fragments). 

Panope orbita Hutt. 

Pecten hutchinsoni Hutt. (fragments). 
^Psammobia lineolata (?) Gray (frag- 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 
-^ Venericardia purpurata (Desh.). 

Venericardia pseutes Sut. 

Calliostoma n. sp. 

Trochus n. sp. 

Pecten n. sp. (radially microscopically 

confirmatory sections. 

Many sections confirmatory of the inferior position of the Waiareka tuft's to the 
Oamaru stone are exposed in the great limestone escarpments extending from Teaneraki 
to Cave VaUey, from Cave Valley to Teschemaker's, from Teschemaker's to Maheno, 
from Totara to One Tree Hill, and from Totara to Deborah. Good sections showing 
the same relationship may be seen at Brockman's Hill, Tabletop HiU, and Landon 

Section at old Quarry, Awamoa Creek, near Deborah. 

In the bottom of the old quarry there is a flow of basalt that, on the east side 
of the cutting, possesses a pillow structure similar to that seen at Boatman's Harbour. 
The pillow-lava is overlain by a bed of fossiliferous calcareous tuff's. Over the fossiliferous 


tuffs lies a soft yellowish-brown polyzoan sandstone, in places tufaceous. 
the Oamaru stone, the typical building-stone. 

Then follows 

Old QvLcurry 

OlcL Qvuarry 

Fig. 5. - Section through old STOSE-gUARRiKS, Upper Awamoa Creek, near Deborah. 

«. Basalt, in places showing pillow-lava structure. 

b. Yellowish ■ brown calcareous tuffs, fossiliferous ; 

8 ft. 

c. Soft yellowish - brown polyzoan sandstone, with 

pale-green tufaceous matter in places ; 42 ft. 

d. Oamaru buikling-.stone ; 10 ft. 

e. Unknown, 30 ft. (probably calcareous tuffs). 

/. Ba.salt showing pillow-lava structure at south- 
east end of quarry. 
(J. Yellowish-brown Pleistocene silts. 

The calcareous tuffs {h) fill the interstices between the uppermost pillows, as shown 
in Fig. 6. The pillows generally vary from 1 ft. to 2 ft. in diameter, but the large 
pillow shown in the middle of Fig. 6 measures 18 ft. by 12 ft. 

Fig. 6.— Section of old t/UARRY-K\ci:, Upper Awamoa Creek, nkak Deborah, showing Pillow-lava 

(bklow Oamaru Stone). 

'(. Pillow-lava. b. Yellowish-brown calcareous tuffs. (j. Pleistocene silts. 

The tuffs overlying the pillow-lava c 
branching coral, Oculina oumaruensis Park. 
The mollu.scs identified from this horizon 

Chione ineridionalis (?) (Sow.). 
^Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 

Cucullom attemmla (?) Hutt. 
^Ghfcymeris laticostata (Q. & G.). 
-^Liina angulata Sow. 

Ldma colorata (?) Hutt. 

Lima paleata (?) Hutt. 

Melina zealarulica Sut. 
^ Mesodesma australe (Gmel.). 
■i- Modiolus auslralis (?) (Gray). 
-^Oslrea angasi (?) Sow. 

Ostrea witellerstorfi Zitt. 

ontain many molluscs and a large solid 
Biachiopods seem to be absent, 
were, — 

Pat) ope orbila Hutt. 

Paiiope worthmgtoni Hutt. 

Pecten aldingensis Tate. 

Peclett burnelti Zitt. 

Pecten marshalli (?) Sut. 
^ Placunanomia zelandica (Gray). 

Protocardia sera Hutt. 
-^Siphonium planatum Sut. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Turbo, cj. superbus Zitt. (casts). 

Turritella caver shamensis (?) Harris. 
-I- Venericardia difficilis (?) (Desh.). 

Of the above twenty-four species, nine (or 37-5 per cent.) are Recent. Writing 
of this collection Mr. Suter says that most of the fossils arc in bad condition for 
identification. A number of specimens, no doubt representing extinct species, could 
not be identified, and therefore the percentage of Recent forms may safely be taken at 
a lower figure. 


Section at Trig. V, near Teschemaker' s old Homestead. 

The fine escarpment running from Totara to Teschemaker's old homestead, situated in 
the lower end of the Waiareka Valley, is surmounted by the Oamaru stone (Plate VII). 
Below the limestone lie the Waiareka tuffs, which spread westward to the Kakanui 
River and northward to Enfield. They occupy the core of the Waiareka anticline, 
which is flanked on both sides by the Oamaru stone, as shown in Fig. 9. 

Wni.asrekob Ckj 

ALrrvcL -Weston 'R3b. 

Flat Topmil 160 



Fu;. 7. — Section from Waiaeeka Cbeek Eastward to Alma-Weston Road. 
(Horizontal scale, 30 chains = 1 in. ; vertical scile, 660 ft. = 1 in. Distance, 1| miles.) 
a. Waiareka tufts. d. Kakanui (or Deborah) tuffs. 

6. Basaltic dyke. 

f. Oamaru building-stone. 

Kakanui (or Deborah) limestone. 
/. C4reensand8. 

A good section of the Waiareka tuffs is exposed in the steep face descending from 
Trig. V to the Waiareka Stream. The tuffs at this place are about 275 ft. thick, and 
apparently unfossiliferous. They consist of well-bedded ash, varying from drab to 
dark-brown and greenish-brown in colour. At the few places where the junction of 
the tuffs and Oamaru stone is not obscured by fallen blocks of limestone the tuffs 
appear to be conformably overlain by the Oamaru stone. 

Section in Railway-cutting South oj Teschemaker's Railway -station. 
A good .section of the actual contact of the Waiareka tuffs and Oamaru stone is 
exposed in the deep railway-cutting beginning 60 yards south of Teschemaker's Railway- 
station, and descending by a steep gradient towards the Kakanui River at Maheno. 
The beds are gently curved or almost horizontal. (B, Plate VII and Fig. 8.) 

'1- • 1.. ;gTin\T.j[iL4^ 1 i ,V^^ii) >^ ^^^ ^L ' ' ' ' ' ' ± ^k P 

~Tne I sw 1 

1^ 300 yards = ^ 

Fig. 8. — Section of Railway-cuttini> immediately South of Teschemaker's Railway-station. 
a. Waiareka tuffs — thin - bedded brownish - green c. Fine-grained yellow or pale-brown calcareous tuff 

volcanic ash, mostly fine in texture ; thick- or volcanic mud, 10 in. to 12 in. thick. 

ness of 30 ft. showing at south end of cut- d. Oamaru stone, 12 in. to 16 in. thick. 

ting. e. Same as c / 8 in. to 14 in. thick. 

6. Oamaru stone, 18 ft. thick. /. Oamaru stone ; thickness of 6 ft. remaining. 

Near the middle of the cutting a wedge-shaped bed of yellow tufaceous clay splits 
the lower bed of Oamaru stone {b) into two bands. The point of the wedge is directed 
towards the south-west — that is, towards the Kakanui Valley. In the direction of 
Teschemaker's the clay band rapidly increases in thickness, and in a distance of 50 yards 
it has widened out to a thickness of 9 ft. At 90 yards from the point of the wedge 
this clay band begins to decrease in thickness, and, going northwards from here, is 
intercalated with two thin layers of Oamaru stone. Near the place where the main 
bed of Oamaru stone (b) is split by the wedge of clayey tuffs, the middle bed of 
Oamaru stone {d, Fig. 7) disappears and clay beds (c and e) come together. 

Plate V. 

A. C. Giflurd, ,,lu.U,.\ 

A. Nag's Head, neau Shirley Creek. View shows Fossilifekous Tuffs. 

A. C. Gifford, photo.] 

B. View xeak Shihley C'keek. showing Conglomerate at Base of Oamahu LnrE- 


Gtol. Bull. No. 20.\ 

[2\) face jKiye J^2. 


Section Jrom Kahanui River to Totara. 
In the^ section the Waiareka tuft's are exposed in the core of the Waiareka anti- 


Totara. Escarpment 
Ty 1 WaxarekoL Sir earn, 

Tescherriakers KakanutRzYe?- 

; Mill WaX-erRace ' 

J} : : 

NE a, ct SW 

Fig. 9. — Section fbom Kakanui River to Totara. 

(Distance, 2 J miles.) 
II. Waiareka tuffs. b. Oamaiu stone. 

In the railway-cutting 200 yards south of the railway-bridge across the Waiareka 
Stream the Waiareka tufTs are exposed on the south-west limb of the Waiareka 
anticline for a distance of 48 yards. Their strike is north-north-west - .south-south- 
east, and the dip west-south-west at an angle of 37°. Here the material consists of 
volcanic ash varying from fine to gritty in texture, and ranging from yellowish-brown 
to olive-green and purple in colour. The tuft's are interleaved with thin sheets of 
grey secondary calcite, or veined with calcite veins that follow cracks and joint-planes. 

In the railway-cutting at mile-post 165 the dip varies from 20° at the north 
end to 7° at the south end. Here the material is fine or gritty, the coarser bands 
being brecciated with small angular fragments of basalt usually much decomposed. The 
fragments are mostly 1 in. or less in diameter. Blocks of basalt (5 in. in diameter are 
scattered throughout the beds of finer material. The colour of the ash varies from rich 
Vandyke brown to dark drabby purplish brown. 

The total length of exposure in this cutting is 200 yards. About 50 yards south 
of the overbridge spanning the cutting the tuft's are interbedded with a strikingly con- 
spicuous l)ed of leek-green tuff, 12 ft. thick. This bed of green tuft is intercalated with 
irregular nocjular layers of calcareous tuff ; and in these layers occur many curious 
branching Polyzoa from \ in. to 1 in. in diameter. With the Polyzoa there occur Pecten 
delicalulus Hutt. and Venericardia acanlhmdes Sut. 

The dip of the tuffs in this cutting is variable, the rapid changes being often due 
to current-bedding. The strike is east-west, and the dip .south. 

At 66 yards farther south there is a second band of leek-green tuft' varying from 
6 in. to 10 in. thick. 

A quarter of a mile north of Totara Railway-station the tuffs in the railway- 
cuttuig are intercalated with a ftow of basalt showing a well-developed pillow structure. 

Section near Maheno Flour-mill. 

About 180 yards below the mill, in the face of the steep escarpment which forms 
the north wall of the Kakanui Valley east of the railway-line, there is a good exposure 
of the actual contact of the Waiareka tuffs and Oamaru stone. 


Fig. 10.- 

n. Waiareka tuffs. 
6. Chalky niays 

SECTION XEAB Maheno Mill, Kakanui V'alley. 

c. Oamaru stone. 

d Bfuuilt, Hill ; {greatest thickness, 12 ft. 


At this ])lact' the Oaniaru stone is intruded by a sill of basalt. Between the 
Waiareka tuffs and the Oaniaru stone there is a bed of chalky clay varying from 
2 ft. to 4 ft. thick. 

In a bed of fine tuff a few feet below the chalky clay some interesting molluscs were 
found : — 

Clio (Styliola) annulata (Tate). 
Crepidula densistria Sut. 
-Pupa alba (Hutt.). 
Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.). 
Dentalium n. sp. 
Amusium zitteli (Hutt.). 

— Divaricella cuminyi (Ad. & Aug.). 

Cardium n. sp. 

Cardium n. sp. 
^Protocardia pulchella (Gray). 

Teredo keaphyi Zitt. 

Cuspidaria n. sp. 

Of twelve species enumerated above, four are new, and one, Clio (Styliola) a>iHulata 
Tate, is new to the New Zealand fauna. 

In the same bed were found Schizaster rotmidatus Zitt., and crab-remains, as well 
as the brachiopods Mtheia. gaulterl (Morris) and Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.). 

About 300 yards from the mill, in the face of the same escarpment, the tuffs 
are invaded by a sill of basalt that occupies the ' lower portion of the cliff for a 
considerable distance. 

NW '&? 


Kakanxti Valley. 
a. Waiareka tuffs. c. Oamarji stone. 

6. Grey chalky clays with limestone bands. d. Basaltic sill. 

Still farther down the Kakanui Valley the Waiareka tuffs are found to be strongly 
developed at Taipo Hill, which is a tuft' cone 300 ft. high, in many^ places seamed 
with narrow dykes of basalt. On the north bank of the Kakanui River due west of 
the summit of Taipo Hill one of these dykes, through the denudation of the softer 
tuffs, now stands up conspicuously as an unsupported wall to a height of nearly 
25 ft. This dyke strikes north-east -south-west. It varies from 2|^ ft. to 3 ft. thick, 
and shows a well-developed columnar structure in which the prisms lie at right 
angles to the plane of the walls. 

Fig. 12. — Section of North Bank of Kakanxti River, a Quarter of a Mile due West of Taipo Hill. 

(Distance, 65 yards.) 
a. Thin-bedded brown tufis. b. Palagonite tuff ; 6 ft. c. Basaltic dyke ; 2'o ft. to 3 ft. 


Section Jrom Big Hill to London Creek. 

The relationship of the Waiarekan tuffs to the Ngaparan coal-measures lying below 
them and to the Oamaru stone lying above is well seen in the section from Big 
Hill to the south-west branch of Landon Creek. 


Cool Mviie 


\ Hor^e CTv\. 

Oamarii, WcUerRace 
FlalTopFdl.770' 320' 

; SWBranch 
j-j ' LandomCk 

Fill. 13. — Section fbom Big Hill to Landon Creek. 
(Distance, 4 J miles.) 
a. Palaeozoic phyllite and mica-schist. c. Band of hard limoiiitic conglomerate. 

6. Quartzose sands and conglomerates with seam of <1. VVaiareka tuffs. 

brown coal. e. Oamarii stone overlain by glauconitic sandstone. 

Section on East Bank of Lower End o/ Grant's Creek. 

Grant's Creek is the north-east branch of Oamaru Creek. It joins Oamaru Creek 
near Ardgowan Post-office. On the left bank of Grant's Creek, about 400 yards 
from Ardgowan Road junction and church reserve, there is a good exposure of the 
Waiarekan tuffs and overlying Oamaru stone. Here in ascending order we have tuffs, 
basaltic conglomerate, Oamaru stone, basaltic conglomerate, and Oamaru stone. Less 
than 50 yards higher up the stream, and on the same side, the Oamaru ston« is 
followed by the Hutchinsonian greensands crowded with Pachymagas fo/rki (Hutton). 
The section exposed in the low cliffs about 30 yards above the farm homestead is 
shown in Fig. 14. 


o o 

I " 


Q rants Creek 

Fio. 14. —Section on Kast Bank of Grant's Creek, 400 Vabds above .Ardoowan Road .Itnction. 

Soft friable greenish tutfs, glauconitic, calcareous, c. Yellowish-brown calcareous sandstone, ft. thick, 

and fossiliferous, 8 ft. showing. d. Bed of basaltic conglomerate, 2 ft. to 4 ft. thick. 

h. Bed of ba.saltic conglomerate varying from 3 in. e. Oamaru stone, 10 ft. showing, 

to {) in. thick. /. Surface soil and gravels. 

The tuffs contain numerous Polyzoa. echinoderm remains, and broken shells, all too 
fragmentary for satisfactory identification. 

The conglomerate bands probably owe their origin to the contemporaneous marine 
erosion of portions of the tuff platform that stood a little above sea-level or were 
just awash, and hence subject to the wear-and-tear of the tides and coastal sea- 


Section on North Side of North-west Branch oj Landon Creek. 
In the upper basin of this stream there is a great development of the Waiarekan 
tuffs. The tuffs are followed by the lower and ujjper bands of Oamaru stone, which, 
as at Kakanui, are separated by a considerable thickness of dark greenish-brown 
tachylitic breccia, in which there occur many minerals, including dark-coloured augite, 
hornblende, garnet, and feldspar. The strike of these rocks is north-east- south-we,st, 
and their dip south-east at angles varying from 40° to 45°. Down the stream the 
dip flattens, and when the upper band of Oamaru stone is reached the angle of dip 
varies from 15° to 20°. 

The lower limestone band is glauconitic, and contains a layer of calcareous tuff. The 
thickness of the tachylitic breccia and associated beds cannot be ascertained, on account 
of slope deposits covering the line of junction between it and the enclosing limestones, 
but the uniform dip and strike leave no doubt as to their relationship to one another. 

The upper glauconitic limestone is followed by a bed of hard grey semi-crystalline 
limestone, varying from 16 in. to 30 in. thick. Overlying this bed is a deposit of 
glauconitic greensands crowded with molluscs, brachiopods, and Polyzoa. The greensands 
are about 14 ft. thick. They are overlain by a bed of hard dark yellowish-brown 
calcareous sandstone, also containing molluscs and brachiopods. 
The beds represented in this valley are thus — 

( (g) Hard brown glauconitic sandstone ; thickness, 6 ft. 

exposed ; fossiliferous. 
I (/) Glauconitic greensands, 14 ft ; fossiliferous. 
(e) Hard grey semi-crystalline limestone, 16 in. to 30 in. 
(f/) Glauconitic limestone (Upper Oamaru stone), 50 ft. thick : 

I (c) Tachylitic mineral breccia, calcareous. 
[(b) Glauconitic limestone (Lower Oamaru stone). 
(a) Dark greenish-brown tuffs. 
The transverse section across the mouth of the gully near the county road is 
shown in Fig. 15. 

N.WBroL-nch of 

Hutch insonian 



O /ttI'i I I I . . I I m I I I I n |- 

FiG. 15. — Teansveese Section at .Mouth of West Beanch of Landon Oeeek. 

a. Upper band of Oamaru stone, 24 ft. showng. 

h. Bed of hard semi-crystalline limestone. 

c. Glauconitic greensands, crowded with Pachymagas 
parki (Hutt.). 

d. Hard brown calcareous sandstone, thickness of 
6 ft. exposed, with Pecten huttoni (Park) 
(abundant), Meoma crawfordi Hutton {—Peri- 
cosmiis compressus McCoy), &c. 

e. High-level Pleistocene gravels. 

From the upper portion of bed a, Fig. 14, were obtained the molluscs Epitonium 

lyraiwn (Zitt.), Pecten delicatulus Hutt., P. polymorphoides Zitt., and Ostrea sp. From 
this bed Uttley records the following brachiopods : — 

Liothyrella boehmi Thomson. Hemithyris squamosa (?) (Hutt.). 

Liothyrella landonensis Thomson. Pachymagas ellipticus Thomson. 

Mtheia gaulteri (Morris). Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.). 

TerebratuUna suessi (Hutt.). 


From the greensands bed c, Fig. 14, the author collected the molluscs — 
^Epitonium zelebmi (Dkr.). Peclen huttoni (Park). 

Pecten beethami Hutt. Pecten semiplicatus Hutt. 

Pecten burnetti Zitt. ^ Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.) ? 

Pecten hxitchinsoni Hutt. Chione meridionalis (Sow.) ? 

The brachiopods obtained from the greensands included — 

Liothyrella landonensis Thomson. Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) (very 

Hemithyris sp. (?) abundant). 

Murravia catinulifoimis (Tate). Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.). 

This bed also contains numerous corals, including Isis dactyla Ten. -Woods, cup- 
■shaped brvozoans in great abundance, long Cidaris spines, Cidaris plates, and Foraminifera. 
From the hard brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone (bed (/, Fig. 14) were collected 
Epiionium lyratum (Zitt.), Pecten huttoni (Park) (abundant), Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), 
Pericosmus compressus McCoy, and Cidaris spines. This bed also yields Rhizothyris 
rhizoida (Hutt.).) 


Along their western or inland margin, from near Totara to the Waitaki, the Waiareka 
tuffs are interbedded with two deposits of diatomaceous earth that probably accumulated on 
the sea-floor during periods of repose from volcanic activity, or during periods when the 
activity was feeble and its effects limited to the immediate vicinity of the volcanic vents. 

The deposits usually occur in two horizons, separated by a variable thickness 
of tuffs. 

The lower deposit is siliceous, the upper usually calcareous. The siliceous deposits 
consist mainly of diatoms, Radiolaria, and sponge-spicula ; the calcareous mainly of 
diatoms and Foraminifera. 

The deposits are not continuous, but occur in flat lens-shaped beds. In some 
places both the lower and upper beds are present, in other places only the lower is 
present, and in many places both are absent. At Big Flume Creek there are three 
diatomaceous horizons. 

Good exposures are seen in the face of the escarpment at Kia Ora (the " Jackson's " 
of former reports), at the old Oamaru stone-quarry west of Round Hill, at Cor mack's 
Siding, at Teaneraki, and Flume Creek near Papakaio. 

In the face of the Kia Ora escarpment, almost exactly three-quarters of a mile 
north-west of Trig. F, there is a lens-shaped deposit of calcareous diatomaceous earth 
with a maximum thickness of 30 ft. and a linear extension of 300 yards. The upper 
surface of the deposit is about 20 ft. below the base of the Oamaru stone. Below 
this deposit, and intimately associated with it, there is a bed of hard fine-grained grey 
or bluish-grey flaggy siliceous sandstone, which in places shows minute but distinct 
current-bedding. It contains diatoms and radiolarians. There is some evidence of the 
occurrence of two beds of siliceous sandstone separated by tuffs, but this is not quite 
certain, as the scarp-face is obscured by a slope deposit in which blocks of Oamaru 
stone, diatomaceous earth, siliceous sandstone, and tuff are intermingled. The sand.stone 
seems to consist of fine quartzose sand cemented by the infiltration of siliceous waters. 
It contains many peculiar tube-like markings that may possibly be fucoid stems. 

Below the .sandstone there is a flow of coluirmar basalt, which extends westward 
to the bank of the Waiareka Stream. 


Section at old Quarry a Mile South of Round Hill (Trig. K). 
At the old stone-quarry the Waiareka tuffs lying below the Oamaru stone are 
intercalated with a thin irregular lens of impure diatomaceous earth. The section 
exposed in the quarry-face is shown in Fig. 16. 


20 ycvrcis 

Fig. 16. — Section at old Quarry a Mile South of Rouxd Hill. 

a. Hard massive dark-grey tuffs formerly quarried for road-metal. 

b. Lens of diatomaceous earth, varying from to 4 ft. thick. 

c. Coarse well-bedded tuffs, tachylitic. 

Section at Cormack's Siding. 
Beginning at a point about 100 yards west of the railway-siding there is exposed 
in the north bank of the railway-cutting a deposit of siliceous diatomaceous earth for 
a distance of 115 yards. The greatest visible thickness of the deposit is 12 ft. The 
earth is intruded by a sill of basalt ; and it lies about 180 ft. below the base of the 
Oamaru stone. The portion of the deposit richest in diatoms is a light pale-yellowish- 
grey chalky-like material. In places the diatomaceous material is hard and heavy. 
Dr. H. A. de Lautour, who devoted much attention to the study of the Miocene 
diatomaceous earth-deposits of the Oamaru district, considers that the hardness of the 
heavy material is due to partial fusion through contact with the basalt. The material 
presents no appearance of fusion, and it seems more probable that the hardness is due 
to the infiltration of siliceous water. Examination showed that the dense material is 
poor in diatoms, while the light chalky material is exceedingly rich. 

Section in Big Flume Creek. Papakaio. 
The deposits of diatomaceous earth occurring at this place are the largest in the 
Oamaru district. The earth occurs in three horizons in the Waiarekan tuffs (beds a, c, 
and J, Fig. 17). The relationship of the tuffs to the Oamaru stone is quite clear. 

\' Phei^tocel^e■'Htgi^'-Zeyel'g^~cb'veZs■\■y:i:::};;;■ 


fc NE 

Fig. 17. — Section on North Side of Big Flume Creek. 

(Beginning half a mile due east of Trig. H, Papakaio Survey District. Distance, haU a mile.) 
a. Grey diatomaceous earth with siliceous muds and sandstones forming hard flaggy layers ; 68 ft. showing. 
6. Compact dark-bluish-green tuffs and tufaceous muds, usually siliceous and intensely hard, the lower 
portion resembling a slaty greywacke ; passing upward becomes yellowish-brown and breaks into 

small cuboidal pieces ; texture fine to coarse ; .34 ft. thick. 

c. YeUowish-brown tuffs, 40 ft. thick, interbedded with thin deposit of diatomaceous earth 

d. Yellowish-grey calcareous tuffs, 6 ft. thick. e. Hard bluish-grey siliceous tuffs, 40 ft. thick. 
/. Diatomaceous earth, impure, siliceous ; 2.5 ft. thick. 

q. Vivid leek-green tuffs, fairly fine texture, 8 ft. thick ; upper portion interbedded with flaggy layers of 

brown calcareous tuff from .5 in. to 8 in. thick. 
h. Mottled brown and green tuffs, 32 ft. thick, with lenses of coarse tachylitic breccia. 
i. Band of hard semi-crystalline limestone, 6 ft. 
j. Yellowish-brown and grey calcareous sandstone, flaky on weathered surfaces, 30 ft. thick, contains layers 

of glauconitic sandstone ranging up to 4 ft. thick. 
k. Oamaru building-stone, 20 ft. thick. 

I. Bed of hard semi-crystalline limestone, varying from 2 ft. to 9 ft. thick. 
m. Brown or yellowish -brown glauconitic sandstone alternating with hard calcareous layers ; thickness 
unknown ; containing I sis dactyla Ten. -Woods, Pecten huttoni Park, and Pericosmus compressus 
McCoy in lower few feet. 

Plate VI. 

Oamaru Diatoms. 
(From Traits. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi, p. 2'J8, illustrating paper on Oamaru Diatoms by Dr. H. A. de Lautour. 

Fig. 1. Deposit from Cormack's siding. 
Fig. 2. Deposit from H. Allen's farm. 
Fig. 3. Deposit from Totara Estate. 

Fig. 4. Deposit from Jackson's farm. 

Fig. 5. Deposit from Bain's highest deposit. 

Fig. 6. Foraminifera from Jackson's and Bain's. 

Geol. Bull. No.W.] 

[To face page Jf8. 


Thk Watarekan Diatoms. 

The richer material is stated by Grove and Start to consist mainly of diatomaceous 
remains, with a small proportion of Radiolaria and sponge-spicula. These authors* 
described 283 forms of diatoms from Cormack's Siding, of which no less than 107 are 
new species or varieties. They also discovered four new genera — Anthodiscus, Kittonia, 
MoHopsia, and Huttonia — and a new subgenus Psemlo-riitilaria. In their first paper 
(loc. cit., vol. ii, Ser. ii, p. 321, No. 16. Sept., 1886) they say there is a remarkable 
similarity between this deposit and the well-known one at Cambridge Estate, Barbadoes. 
Several of the forms occurring at Cormack's have hitherto only been met with in the 
Barbadoes deposit. The family Biddul{)liiie, as in the Barbadoes, is strongly represented 
by the genus Triceratium, of which over thirty species or distinct varieties were 

Grove and Sturt also trace a connection between the Simbirsk (Russia) and Cormack's 
depo.sits. Several of the species, notably those of Mastogloia and Ampkara, still exist 
in the Indian Ocean. Figs. 1 to 5, Plate VIII. drawn by Dr. do Lautour. show the 
characteristic diatoms of deposits at different places near Cave Valley. 

In a paperf published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society oj Edinburgh in 1890, 
being "' .\ Revision of the Genus Coscinodisms [Ehrb.] and of some Allied Genera," the 
author, John Rattray, makes many references to the Oamaru diatoms. Among the 
species he describes as peculiar to the Oamaru deposits are Coscinodi.scus tenuisculptus 
Rattray ; C. }uctiio.sHs Grove (MS.), Troublesome Gully, Oamaru ; C. argus var. 
subtraducena Rattray, and C. debilis Rattray, Jackson's Paddock, Oamaru : ('. dubiosus 
var. curvans Rattray, Troublesome Gully, Oamaru ; C. megacentrum Grove (MS.), 
Oamaru ; C. splendidulus Rattray, Oamaru ; C. decussatiis Grove and Sturt (MS.), 
Bain's farm, upper stratum, Oamaru ; C. densu.s Grove and Sturt (MS.), Oamaru ; 
Asterolampra urasfer Grove and Sturt, Oamaru ; Liradiscus marginxitus Grove (MS.), 

Waiareka.v Sponge-remains. 

In a paper read before the Linnean Society in 1891J G. J. Hinde and W. 
Murton Holmes described 110 species of siliceous sponges, belonging to forty-three 
different genera, from the diatomaceous earth-deposits near Oamaru : Monactinellid, 
seventy species and twenty-four genera ; Tetractinellid, twenty-two species and nine 
genera ; Lithistid, seven species and five genera ; Hexactinellid, eleven species and five 

Referring to the relative abundance of diatoms, .sponge-remains, and radiolarians, 
they say that the material contains such a commixture of these organisms that it 
could be as appropriately designated after one of these forms of life as after another. 
They describe the material as greyish-white when dry, soft, earthy, friable, and readily 
breaking up into a fine mud of a creamy tint when placed in water. The deposit 
seems to be nearly wholly of organic origin ; no .sand or other coarse material of 
mechanical origin could be distinguished in it. Most of the specimens of the material 
appear to be entirely siliceous, and show no reaction with acid, but in some there is a 
small proportion of calcareous matter. 

In their general summary the authors state that nearl)' every hitherto known form 
of spicule of siliceous marine sponges, both skeletal and flesh spicules, is represented in 
the Oamaru deposit, except some of those from the Palaeozoic strata and a few Recent 

*E. Grove and G. Sturt: Jour. Qaekett Micro. Club, 1 6th Sept., 1886; 17th Jan., 1887; 18th May, 
1887 ; and 19th Aug., 1887. 

t Proc. Roif. Soc. Edin.. vol. xvi, 1890, pp. 449-692 ; with two fold plates. 

X ■■ On the Sponge- icinains in the Lower Tertiary Strata near Oamaru, Otago, New Zealand." Ldnn. 
Soc. Jour., Zoology, vol. xxiv, pp. 178-262. 

4 — Oamaru. 


A particular feature of this sponge fauna is the remarkable predominance of the 
genera and species of Mouactinellid sponges over those of other groups. 

The nearest existing relatives of many of the sponges in the Oamaru deposits now 
inhabit the Indian and Southern oceans ; some are cosmopolitan in distribution, whilst 
others as yet have only been recognized in the North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. 

Another striking feature is the association of sponge-remains which, as judged by 
their nearest living representatives, inhabit abyssal depths with others whose relations 
now live in comparatively shallow water. Thus the Oamaru Tertiary deposit contains 
numerous spicules of the genus Hyalonema, Recent forms of which, according to the 
" Challenger '' Report, usually occur in depths below 1,000 fathoms, and range down to 
3,000 fathoms. There are also spicules belonging to such deep-sea Monactinellid genera 
as Cladorhiza, Chondrocladia, and Esperiopsis, species of which were met with by the 
" Challenger " at depths from 1,600 to 3,000 fathoms. On the other hand, there are 
present spicules of such genera as Myxilla, which in Recent seas are found in water 
not more than 10 fathoms deep, and of other genera, both of Monactinellid and 
Tetractinellid .sponges, which now inhabit depths of from 10 to 200 fathoms. This association 
the authors think may perhaps be explained by the fact that many genera have an 
extraordinary range in depth — i.e., from 30 to 3,000 fathoms. They think that the 
Oamaru deposits may be assumed to have been formed at depths of not less than 
1,000 to 1,500 fathoms. This assumption, it should be noted, was made in ignorance 
of the prevailing geological conditions of the deposits. The proximity of the old 
shore-line, the fact that the Waiarekan tuffs in which these deposits are intercalated 
rest conformably on the shallow-water quartzose grits and conglomerates of the Ngaparan, 
and are followed by the Oamaru stone (a shallow-water polyzoan limestone that lies 
in places not more than 20 ft. above the upper diatomaceous deposits), and the 
occurrence in the Waiarekan tuffs themselves of shallow-water moUuscs and brachiopods, 
compel us to conclude that the Oamaru diatomaceous deposits are shallow-water 
deposits probably ranging from 10 to 100 fathoms. 





General Description . . . . 51 

Relationship of Ototaran to Waiarekan . . .")2 

Kelationsliip of Ototaran to H\itehin.sonian 52 

Oamaru Stone . . . . . . 53 

Character of Oamaru Stone . . . . 53 

Origin of Oamaru Stone . . 54 

Fauna of Oamaru Stone . . . . 54 

Section at All Day Bay • • . . 56 
Section at South Bank of Kakanui River 

opposite Kakanui . . 57 

f'onfirmatory Sections . . . . 58 

Section in Railway-cutting near Dp-' 

borah . . . . . . . . 58 

Section at Hutchinson's old Quarry, 

Oamaru . . . . .59 

Section at Devil's Bridge . . til 

Section at Landon Creek, Main Branch 63 

Section at Brockman"s Hill . . 64 

Section at Tabletop Hill . . 64 
Section at Lower End of West Branch, 

Landon Creek . . . . 65 

Section in Waitaki Valley, Big Flume 

Creek . . . . . . . . 66 

Kakanui Tuffs and Breccias 

Fauna of Kakanui Tulfs and Breccias . . 
Section, Kak.iiuii Lime-quarrv to the 

Contirmatory Sections 

S(>ction from Beach l)plow 'Piig. '!' to 

near Three Roads 
Section in Road-cutting half-mile due 

East of Rocky Peak 
Section on Road North of Rocky 

Peak . . 
Section at Teschemakor's old Quarry 
Section at Totara old Stone-quarry . . 
Section at Weston old Stone-quarry . . 
Section at Trig. M, near Sebastopol. . 
Section on North Bank of Parson's 

Creek . . 
Section in Road-cutting near Ard- 
gowan Bridge over Oamaru Creek. . 
Section at Fortification Hill 
\'olcanie Rocks overlying the Ototaran . . 
Section at Outer Breakwater 
Section in Chamborlin Street 

(rt) Kakanui (or Deborah) liinestniic. in places intercalated with tuffs. 
(b) Upper Oamaru stone . . | Aiound Oamaru these 

(r) Kakanui tuffs and breccias, or marly I are replaced by tuffs, 
clays. . . . . . I tachylitic breccias, and 

((/) Lower Oamaru stone . . . . I basaltic lava-flows. 






(teneral Description. 

The Ototaran consists of two main subdivisions — namely, the Oamaru stone (the 
well-known building-stone of that name) and the Kakanui (or Deborah) limestone. 

The Oamaru stone is a soft, easily worked polyzoan limestone. In the coastal 
area it is divided by the Kakanui tuffs and breccias into two unequal portions. The 
lower is the typical building-stone. The upper is usually tufaceous, and rarely possesses 
the qualities of a good building-stone. Outside the volcanic zone the Oamaru stone 
forms a .single continuous sheet of good building-material, containing no terrigenous 

The Kakanui limestone follows the Oamaru stone conformably. It is mainly 
polyzoan in structure, and doubtless owes its origin to a continuance of the conditions 
that gave rise to the Oamaru stone. Hence it may be regarded as a pathological 
variety of the Oamaru stone. Its hard serai-crystalline character is due to the 
infiltration of calcareous waters during some change of conditions that took place after 
its formation. 

The uneven and corroded upper surface of the Kakanui limestone was probably 
due to erosion during an uplift of sufficient extent to bring the surface within the 
influence of the prevailing coastal sea-currents. 

The marine conglomerate which overlies the Kakanui limestone in many places is a 
record of this period of uplift and erosion. 

4* — Oamaru. 


The Kakanui limestone is persistent througliout the Kalianui Waitaki area, and, 
except where removed by denudation, is co-existent with the Oamaru stone. It has 
been distinguished as a submember of the Ototaran on account of its physical 
characteristics, and the ease with which it can be recognized in the field. Moreover, 
being superior to the Oamaru stone, it represents a correspondingly higher time-plane. 

Relationshi]) of Ototaran to WaioreJcan. 

In some places where the Waiarekan tuffs are well bedded the overlying Oamaru 
stone is seen to follow them with perfect stratigraphical conformity, as, for example, at 
Enfield (Fig. 2), Teschemaker's (Fig. 8), Trig. V (Fig. 7), head of Horse Creek (Fig. 13), 
lower end of Grant's Creek (Fig. 14). and Big Flume Creek (Fig. 17). In other places. 
as at the Rifle Butts, there is a stratigraphical discordance (Plate IV). This uncon- 
formity may be the result of contemporaneous erosion, or perhaps it may have arisen 
from nearness to the centre of submarine eruption. It is almost certain that as the 
fragmental volcanic material was ejected it would accumulate around the vent as a 
broad truncated cone, on the outer slope of which the freshly ejected material would 
be deposited as layers lying parallel with the slope on which they rested. Whatever 
the cause of the unconformity, it is certain that it possesses no pahTPontological 

Relationship of Ototaran to Hutchinsonian. 

The closing member of the Ototaran is a hard semi-crystalline limestone, more or 
less phosphatised, lying directly on the Oamaru stone. Where the greensands, the 
lowest member of the Hutchinsonian, rest on this hard limestone (Deborah or Kakanui 
limestone) the upper surface of the limestone is usually worn with small shallow 
basin-like holes, separated by narrow ridges. 

The actual contact of the Kakanui limestone and greensands is well seen on the 
coast at All Day Bay, at the mouth of the north-west branch of Landon Creek (already 
shown in Fig. 15), and at the Rifle Butts (Plate IV). At Deborah railway-cutting, 
Hutchinson Quarry, Ardgowan Junction, and Devil's Bridge there is a bed of con- 
glomerate interposed between the Kakanui limestone and the greensands. Except at 
Devil's Bridge the material composing the conglomerate is basaltic. 

From a point half a mile north of Flat Top Hill to the Three Roads the greensands 
rest on the Kakanui limestone ; but at the latter place, as seen in the road-cutting a 
hundred yards south of the road-junction, the greensands pass from the limestone on 
to the tachylitic breccia-tuffs (the mineral breccia of Thomson) that underlie the 
limestone. (See enlarged map of Kakanui area.) It is possible that the stratigraphical 
unconformity at Three Roads between the greensands and tachylitic breccia may have 
arisen from volcanic activity at a purely local vent having prevented the spread of the 
coralline growth to this site. According to the field evidence there is a well-marked 
stratigraphical unconformity at this place, but, as suggested above, it may be due to 
some local volcanic happening. 

The conglomerate lying between the greensands and the Deborah (Kakanui) limestone 
is a fairly constant member, being strongly developed at Deborah (Fig. 20), near the 
Ardgowan Creamery at the junction of Grant's and Oamaru creeks, at Hutchinson's 
Quarry, along Target Gully, and at Devil's Bridge. At the Devil's Bridge the material 
composing the conglomerate is a siliceous cement stone ; elsewhere it is basaltic. At 
Deborah, Parson's Creek near Ardgowan Creamery, and Hutchinson's Quarry the 
conglomerate is glauconitic, and contains marine fossils, among which a thick oyster 
{Ostrea wuellerstorf, Zittel) and the large brachiopod Terebratula boehmi Thomson are 
nearly always present. The conglomerate, where basaltic, is of marine origin ; and 

Plate VII. 

Jfimes Park', /ihoto ] 


James Piirk\ pfioto.] 

B. Kailwat-cuttimg S(jlth of Teschemaker's Railway-station. 

Geol. Bull. So. 20.\ 

[To face page 52. 


the material of which it is composed around Oamaru would indicate that islands or 
low reefs of volcanic rock existed in this area, and furnished the material. It is possible 
that the volcanic islands which furnished the basaltic pebbles were piled up by the 
accumulation of volcanic fragmental material till they became dry land ; but it is 
doubtful if submarine volcanoes would possess the ability to pile up material to a 
sufficient height and in sufficient bulk to form permanent dry land. 

At the Devil's Bridge the Oamaru stone is overlain by a thin sheet of hard 
siliceous sandstone resembling a quartzite or cement-stone ; and th(^ conglomerate which 
follows is mainly composed of pebbles of this siliceous rock. 

The cement-stone conglomerate is continuous, but the sheet of siliceous rock which 
provided the siliceous pebbles is not continuous. The evidence would seem to indicate 
that at the Devil's Bridge area, even if not around Oamaru, there was an upward 
movement of the land at the close of the Ototaran, of sufficient extent to bring the 
sheet of siliceous rock covering the Oamaru stone under the influence of subaerial 
erosion for a short interval of time. 

At Landon Creek and VVaitaki Valley the greensands follow the Oamaru stone 
conformably, without tlH> interposition of a conglomerate. Clearly, the upward 
movement did not extend to the Waitaki area, but was confined to the volcanic zone. 
It was probably the result of local crustal warping arising from volcanic disturbance. 

The corroded surface of the limestone at Kakanui and All I)a\' Bay, and the 
presence of the basaltic conglomerate between the limestone and greensands at Deborah 
and Oamaru. show that the grouping of the Hutchinson Quarry beds and the Oamaru 
stone in separate systems, as adopted b\' the old Geological Survey under Sir James 
Hector and by (!aptain Hutton, had some justification on .stratigraphical if not on 
paUeontological grounds. 'IMie ju-esent survey proves that the stratigraphical break 
is merely local and of no great moment. 

The paheontological and .stratigraphical evidence clearly indicates that the Hutchin- 
sonian is more nearly related to the Awamoan than to the Ototaran. The relationship 
existing between the Hutchinsonian and Awamoan is generally so close that it is 
difficult to define where the one ends and the other begins. 

Oamaru Stone. 
Character of Oamaru Stone. 

The typical Oamaru building-stone is a soft grey or pale greyish-yellow polyzoan 
limestone. It is perfectly free of sand and other mechanically formed detrital matter, 
and is so soft that it can be sawn into blocks of any desired size and shape with the 
greatest ease. In places it contains grains of glauconite either scattered throughout 
the whole mass or occurring in layers. Where the glauconite has become oxidized 
the stone is stained yellowish-brown. 

Isolated examples of molluscs, brachiopods, echinoderms, and fish-teeth occur in the 
stone, but they are rare. 

At Kakanui the Oamaru .stone is intercalated with a thick bed of volcanic tuff and 
breccia that thins out raj)idly to the westward and northward. At Totara and Deborah 
these intercalated tuffs are only a few feet thick, and west of the railway-line soon 
thin out altogether. The intercalated tuffs to the seaward of the railway-line split the 
Oamaru stone into two distinct beds, the lower of which is the greater. A mile 
westward of the railway-line the Oamaru stone occurs as a single sheet. It extends 
northward from Kakanui to Round Hill, Enfield, Teaneraki, Devil's Bridge, Brockman's 
Hill, Tabletoj) Hill, Landon Creek, and Papakaio, altogether a distance of sinne fourteen 
miles, with a width varying from one to two miles. 


At Fortification Hill and Weston Quarry the Oaniaru stone is intercalated with 
thill tufaceous bands that in places contain brachiopods in great abundance. 

The easterly dip of the Oaniaruian strata and the great denudation they liave 
suffered on the landward side and along the crown of the Waiareka anticline — the latter 
a marginal fold in the seaward-dipping strata — have led to the formation of long lines 
of escarpment crowned by the Oaraaru stone. The liigh escarpment wall between 
Weston and Enfield, bounding the north-east side of Cave Valley, is a notable example 
of the effects of subaerial denudation when acting on gently tilted- strata surmounted by 
a hard resistant stratum. Other escarpments occur at Maheno, between Totara and 
One Tree Hill, between Fortification and Ivia Ora, and between Enfield and Teaneraki. 
Isolated flat-topped outliers like Brockman's Hill and Tabletop HQl are bounded on all 
sides by steep scarp-faces. 

Origin of Oamaru Stone. 

The Oamaru stone is the remains of a Middle Cainozoic polyzoau reef that established 
itself on the submarine platform formed by the eruption of the Waiarekan tuffs. 
This reef evidently formed a small barrier lying across the ancient Kakanui embay me tit 
at a distance of several miles from the old shore-line. As we pass from the 
present <'oast towards the ancient strand, across the barrier reef at right angles to its 
general trend, the limestone is seen to possess a plano-convex transverse section — that is, 
the platform-floor on which the limestone rests is relativeh* flat, but to the westward 
the rock increases from 40 ft. thick at Ivakanui to 112 ft. thick near W^^ston, and 
thereafter going farther westward and northward thins out altogether. 

In the Kakanui-Totara area the renewal of volcanic activity destroyed the marine 
faiuia, whose remains soon became buried beneath a sheet of ash and other volcanic 
ejecta. When activity ceased Polyzoa once more established themselves, and in of 
time built up the upper portion of the Oamaru stone and what is now the Kakanui 
(or Deborah) limestone. Outside the area affected b}- this Ototaran volcanic outburst 
the growi;h proceeded uninterruptedly and, as stated above, attained a great thickness, 
the present visible thickness near Weston being 112 ft. 

The Kakanui (or Deborah) limestone is the uppermost horizon of the Ototaran. 
It is co-extensive with the Oamaru stone, on which it rests. Its thickness varies from 
2 ft. to 22 ft., this variation arising partly from the effects of denudation. The Kakanui 
limestone is largely polyzoan, and appears to represent that portion of the •■coral reef" 
that became hard and semi-crystalline thronijh the infiltration of ealcareons waters. 

Fauna of Oamaru Stone. 

The Oamaru building-stone, whether it occurs in a single sheet or in two hands 
divided by the Kakanui tuffs, consists largely of polyzoan structures. Microscopical 
examination shows that the calcareous cement filling the interstices is almost wholly 
made up of Foraminifera, with which also occur Radiolaria and sponge-spicules. 

Among the polyzoans and corals identified by Man tell* in the Oamaru stone were 
Cereopora ototara, Cereopora sp., and Manon, a small claviform species. Those recorded 
by Tenison- Woods are listed on pp. 116-117. 

The Foraminiferat recognized by Rupert Jones include — 

Rosalina Iwvigata Ehrenb Found in chalk of Sicily. 
Rosalina beccarii Linn. sp. A common Recent form. 
Rosalina sp. Resembling Criatellaria propinqua Reuss. 
Rosalina larneiana d'Orb. Cretaceous. 

Quart. Journ. OeoL Soc. Loud., vol. vi, 1850, pp. 329, 330. t Mantell loc. cit., p. 330. 


Textnlaria sp. Nearly related to a Gault species, and to a species from 

the magnesian limestone, T. cuneiformis Jones. 
Texlnlaria elongata. A remarkable species resembling a common form in the 

Charing chalk-detritus. 
Textnlaria globosa Ehrenb. Common in English chalk. 
Textularia aciculata Ehrenb. Common in English chalk. 

Nodosaria) limhala d'Orb. Cretaceous. 
Cristrllaria rotulata Lamk. sp. Cretaceous. 
Btdimina. Two or three species. 

The echinoderms are represented by the large and distinctive species Pericosmus 
compressus McCoy, which ranges throughout the Ototaran and finally disappears at the 
close of the Hutchinsonian. * 

The crustaceans in the Oamaru stone recorded b}' Mantell* include the ento- 
mostraceans — 

Bairdia subdeltoidm Miinstef sp. Cretaceous to Recent. 
Cijthereis interrupla Bosquet sp. Cretaceous. 
Cythereis gibba Roeraer sp. Tertiary. 
Cythereis galtina Jones. Cretaceous. 

Among the .\Iollusca are Epitoniutu lijiatuvt (Zitt.). Pecten hiiUoni (Park), and 
Pecten delicalulu)i Hutt. A specimen of Dosinia greyi Zitt., with both valves complete, 
was found embedded in a block of Oamaru stone. It was submitted to Mr. Suter, 
who described it as the, largest and finest example of this species, fossil or living, that 
he had hitherto examined. The valves enclose a hard blue marly clay, and this 
would tend to show that it had been drop])ed in its resting-place in the Oamaru coral 
reef by some bird or fish. 

In the Oamaru stone when free from foreign matter the only brachiopod appears 
to be Pachymugas parki (Hutt.), or P. eUiplicus Thomson, but when tufaceous several 
genera, each of them usually represented only by a single species, may make 
their appearance. ' Those reported by Uttlcy from the north-west brancli of Landon 
Creek have already been enumerated. The species found by the author in the 
tufaceous layer in the Oamaru stone at Weston as exposed in the abandoned building- 
stone quarr)' near the railway-siding were — 

Neothyris uttleyi Thom.son (MS.). Liothyrella pulchra Thomson. 

Neothyris tapir ina (Hutt.). Pachymagas parki (Hutt.). 

From this tuft" band Uttley also collected .'Etheia ganlteri (Morris), and 'Terebratulitia 
oamarutica Boehm, which is, however, considered to be a synonym of T. suessi (Hutt.). 

in the lowermost band of calcareous tuff in the Oamaru stone at Fortification 
Hill, as exposed opposite the south-west corner of the village of Alma, the author 
collected the following brachiopods : — 

Liothyrella pulchra Thomson. Hemithyrin sp. 

Terebratvlina suessi (Hutt.). 

Terebratella totaraensis Thomson, (jjossibly the same as T. kakanuiensis 

♦ Loe. cit, p. 330. 


Section at All Day Bay. 

This bay is situated about a mile south of Kakaiiui South Head. A( its north 
end it is bounded by low rocky clift's that expose a good section of the volcanic 
breccias and overlying strata. 

sw / 

d, c ~ c b 

Fig. 18. — Section at A^obth End of Ali. Day Bay. 



«. Volcanic breccias and tuffs. 6. Yellowish-grey polyzoan limestone, 13 ft. thick. 

c. Hard semi-crystalUne limestone, with upper surface corroded and uneven ; 4 ft. thick. 

d. Greyish-coloured greensands crowdc<l with /.sj.s flri(fi/I(i Ten. -Woods, and tish-teeth : about 2 ft. Ihiek. 

e. Dark greensands with Pachynumas purki Mutton in abundance ; about 10 ft. thick. 
/. Blue marine clays with hard sandstone layers. 

In this section beds a, h, c, are Ototaran ; beds d and e, Hutchinsonian ; and 
beds /, Awamoan. 

The volcanic breccia is well bedded. It forms the whole of the sea-cliffs from the north 
end of AU Day Bay to Kakanui South Head, at the river-mouth. At All Day Bay 
it dips south-west at an angle of about 8°, but to the northwards, towards tlie head- 
land, the inclination increases to 25°, while the strike changes to almost east and 
west (E. 10'' W.), the dip still being to the south. At the mouth of the river the 
dip is to the north, at an angle of 25^. 

The polyzoan limestone (bed h) contains a little volcanic ash and some fragments of 
augite, hornblende, and other minerals. The upper jjortion of the hard limestone 
(bed c) is glauconitic, and abounds with fossils, mostly as casts. From this bed Uttley 
collected — 

Turbo sp. 

Struthiolaria sp. 
Polinices ovatus (Hutt.). 
Cyprcea ovulofella Tate. 
Epifonivm lyrotum (Zilt.). 
Siphonalia sp. nov. 
Cymhiola corrugata (Hutt.). 
Euthria media (Hutt.). 

Pecten polymorphoides Zitt. 
— Lima I ma (L.). 
Liothyrella oamarulica (Boehm). 
lAothyreUa hoehmi Thomson. 
Terebrafnlnm suessi (Hutt.). 
Hemithyris sp., c/. (Hutt.). 
/Etheia (jaulteri (Morris). 

The limestones (beds h and c) are the equivalent of the Kakanui limestone as 
exposed at the quarry and on the beach north of Kakanui Township. 

The lower greensands (bed d. Fig. 18) contain the peculiar coral Isis dactyla 
Ten. -Woods in great abundance, Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson), many fish-teeth (mostly 
those of Lamna). and the molluscs Siphonium planafum Sut., Pecten williamsoni Zitt., 
and Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

The overlying darker and tougher greensands contain the brachiopod Pachymagas 
parki (Hutton) in great numbers, especially in the more sandy lower 2 ft. 

The upper surface of the hard limestone (bed c) is uneven, having been corroded or 
worn into smooth cup-shaped depressions that are separated by roimded ridges. The 
greensands lie on this uneven surface and their lower portion contains hard calcareous 

Plate VIII. 

A. C. Gilford, photo] 

A. QuAKRY OF Oamahl' Stone, Teschemaker's. 

Janus I'nrk, /iholo.. 

B. Gat's Oamaru Stone Quarry, near Weston. 
Geol. Bull. No. 20.] [To face page 56. 


j);lauconitic nodules. The surface of the limestone, as well as many of the greensand 
nodules and numerous Isis that occur in the greensands close to the limestone-contact, 
are covered with a shining yellowish-brown film of tricaicic phosphate. A few widely 
scattered phosphatic nodules also occur in the upper portion of the greensands (bed e). 
The tricaloic phosphate was obviously deposited by infiltration after the greensands were 
laid down — perhaps after they were raised above sea-level. Fish and other organic 
remains are abundant in the greensands, and not improbably these Were the source of the 
phosphoric; acid. 

Section along SontJi Bunk of Kakanui River opposite Kakanui. 

The relationshij) of the volcanic breccia, as exposed at tlie MKiatli of the Kakanui, 
to the rocks that underlie it is shown in the cliffs along the south bank of the 
Kakanui River from the South Head to a [)oin1 opposite the village of Kakanui. 


Sea - level -Datum 



Flo. 19. — SKcrroK along Soctk Bank df Kvkanui River oi'I'Gsitk Kakanui Township. 

(Distance, 800 yards.) 

a. Thin- bedded yellowish-grey impure limestone ; 3.5 ft. exposed. 

b. Pale-blue marly clays, interbedded with two bands of hard tufaceous limestone— one at the top nf the 

clays <) in. to !) in. thick ; the other 4^ ft. lower, 12 in. thick. 

c. Well-liedded tuffs : angle of dip, from !:{" to 14 : strike. N. 10" E. ; .5S ft. thick, of which lower Iti ft. 

is a fine volcanic ash ; the upper portion contains fragments of augite, hornblende, garnet, and other 
minerals in great abundance. 
Yellowish-grey polyzoan limestone; 32ft. exposed. e. iJand of hard flaggy limestone, 4ft. thick. 

/. Calcareous tuffs and breccias with minerals ; the same rocks as r. 

k. Volcanic breccia. 

At point k, Mng west of the lower limestone (bed a, Fig. 19), there is an outcrop 
of volcanic breccia exposed at low water in the bed of the river. It is distinctlv 
bedded, and dips east at an angle of 10'' or 12°. The matrix is fine volcanic ash, 
and scattered throughout are many angular blocks of vesicular basalt. This fragmental 
volcanic rock is probably an extension of the Waiareka tuffs, which are strongly 
developed a short distance to the north of this on the left bank of the Kakanui 
River and on the same line of strike. The dij) of this isolated outcrop of breccia is 
such as to carrv the rock below the lower limestone. 


Tho lower limestone (bed a) foriespondp to the Oamaru stone. It is a polyzoan 
limestone containing fine volcanic ash. The thickness exposed in the low shelving bank 
of the river is 35 ft., but the total thickness is unknown, as the base of the rock is 
not seen. The upper 6 ft. contains a few scattered molluscs and brachiopods that 
occur mostly in a fragmentary state or as imperfect casts. Here the author collected 
a few examples of Terebratulifia .stiessi (Huttou) ; at the same place Uttley found 
Liathy reiki pnlchm (?) Thomson, and Linlhyrella oiuiiaruticn (Boehm). None of tlic 
molluscs collected here by tlie author could be satisfactorily determined. 

The pale-blue marly cla^s following the lower limestone resemble in apjiearance and 
texture the nuids erupted around Rotomahana during the Tarawera eruption in 1886. 
They contain many Foraminifera. Their thickness is about 24 ft. They contain several 
lines of scattered rounded pebbles of basalt. The presence of these ]ioints to the 
existence of contemporaneous erosion by coastal currents and tides. These clays also 
contain two thin bands of hard flaggy limestone — one at the top from 6 in. to 9 in. 
thick, and tlie other 4| ft. from the top and about 1 ft. thick. 

The fragmental bedded breccia-tuffs that follow the clays aic what Thomson* called 
" mineral breccia." In this report they have been designated the Kakanui tuSs or 
breccias They lie between the lower and upper limestones, and form a flat anticline 
(Fig. 19). The same anticline is seen on the coast a few hundred yards north of 
All Day Bay — that is, the axis of the anticline passes south-eastward across the 
promontory of which the South Heads are the extreme east point. 

The lower 16 ft. consists of fine dark-brown ash, and the upper 40 ft. of breccias. 
The latter consist of small angular fragments of basalt, most of them under 3 in. in 
diameter, set in a matrix of tine calcareous ash. which also contains splinters and 
fragments of augite, hornblende, and other minerals. 

The upper limestone (bed d, Fig. 19) is about 32 ft. thick. In its lower portion 
it contains a good deal of fine volcanic ash, the presence of which renders the limestone 
soft and friable. It is capped with a band of hard semi-crystalline limestone about 
4 ft. thick. 

From the tufaceous portion of limestone (bed d) Uttley collected— 

Efitonium lyratnm (Zitt.). TerebratuUna siiessi (Hutt.). 

Pecten aldingensis Tate. Magella carinata Thomson. 

Peclen delicatulus Hutt. Hemithyris s})., (/. squamosa (Hutt.). 

Liolhyrella oamarutica (Boehm). Mtheia gauheri (Morris). 

The assemblage of brachiopods and the relationship to the mineral breccia clearly 
correlate these limestones (beds d and e) with the limestones exposed at Kakanui 
lime-kiln and neighbourhood. 


Sections showing the relationship of the Kakanui (or Deborah) limestone to the 
overlying green.sands are exposed in the railway-cutting near Deborah,, at the Devils 
Bridge, at lower end of north-west branch of Landon Creek, at the mouth of Big 
Flume Creek, Papakaio, at Rifle Butts south of Cape Wanbrow and at Hutchinson's 
Quarry, Oamaru. 

iSection in Raihvay -cutting Quart er-mile North oj Deborah. 
At this place a bed of basaltic conglomerate lies between the imestone and the 

* Tram. S.Z. limi., vol. .w.wiii, p. 4:8(). 



Whre fence 


a. olive - green tuffs, with splinters of garnet, 

iiugite, &c. ; l)asc not seen. 
h. Haid semi-crystalline limestone : lowei- portion 

glauconitic, coralline, and soft ; I 1 ft. thick. 

c. Basaltic conglomerate, glaueonitie and eal- 


d. (Jrecnsands erowdetl with PuchyiiiiKjo/i parki 

Hutt. ; also contains maiiv molhises. 

These beds dip almost north-east (true) at an atijile of 18^ l^eds c and (/ Itelong 
to t]n\ Lower Htitchitisoniaii stage. 

At the south end of the rail\va3'-<uttin}i the tuffs are underlain l)y the Oaniaru stone, 
and at the okl quarry 400 yards due south of the Deborali railway-siding the tutt's are 
seen lying between the Oainaru stone and Deborali limestone. Here they are 11 ft. thiek. 
antl. as elsewliere, eontain splinters of garnet, augite. hornblende, and other minerals. 

The l)ase of the Deborah limestone (bed h) is a soft impure iron-stained glaueonitie 
limestone composed mainly of corals, brvozoans, and Foraminifera, mingled with some 
fine volcanic ash which is chiefly responsible for the friable character of (he rock. 
Besides corals there are present (vliinoderm spines and plates in great abundance, as 
well as some scattered molluscs, mostly fragmentary, and a few brachiopods, the latli-r 
includinii LiolffifreUa oomarutico (Boehm) and Terehnilidina sue.ssi (Hutt.). 

The conglomerate consists mainly of well - rounded basaltic pebbles .set in a 
calcareous glaueonitie greensand matrix. The lower 6 ft. of the greensands contain 
many mollu.scs and brachiopods. .Vbove tliat the greensands are crowded with 
Pa<h;iiit(ui(ts jKiiki (Hutt.). and molluscs are relatively scarce. Among the mollu.scs 
collected in tiie lower 8 ft. of the "reensands were, 

EiJitoDixiii n. sp. 
: Xeiiophoni comiqalit (Reeve). 
Turritdla concava (i) Hutt. 
-^ Sii)honalici dilatatn (Q. & G.). 
Teredo lieaphyi Zitt. 
Sirathiolaria liiberculatu Hutt. 
Denfoliimi soJiihnn Hutt. 
V'/mhiolft eoijiigata (Hutt.). 
Fii-sinus .solidun {<) Sut. 
Cardium patulum (?) Hutt. 

From the same portion of the 

Cardium sjxiliosti.m {() Hutt. 
Lima colorulu Hutt. 
lAma paleala Hutt. 
Mactra atteiumtn Hutt. 
I'nnope worfhitif/to7n Hutt. 
I'ecle.H heethcmii Hutt. 
I'eeleii linlebiii.soni Hutt. 
I'exleii huttoni (Park). 
Pecten semiplicatus Hutl. 
Protocurdia sera Hutt. 

^reen.sands Tttley collected Pecten lrlj)h(jo/:l Zitf., 
Pec/en deJivatulm Hutt.. Mlheia ijaulleri (Morris), Terebratulina (Hutt.) Lsi.s dactyla 
Ten. -Woods, and Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson). 

Section at Hulchinsoti's old Quarry, Lower End of Target G'ldly, Oamaru. 

Though an isolated outcrop, this old quarry has figured .so largely in the geological 
literature of Otago that it has become classical. Here an unknown thickness of tuflfs 
is succeeded by an impure limestone consisting of irregular layers of pure fine-grained 
limestone separated by layers of tufi. Overlying the limestone comes a thick bed of 
basaltic conglomerate, and over this are greensands. The latter are interbedded in 
their upper portion with bands of hard calcareous brown glaueonitie sandstone. These 
hard bands weather out on the hillside as overhanging cornices, and they may be 
traced as a chain of disconnected outcrops along the north slope of Target Gully, 
from Hutchinson's Quarry to a point near the Oamaru Borough reservoir, a distance 
of nearly two miles. 


SutchxnsorCs Qxuvrry 
67 above sea -lev eL 

TcLTget Cree'h 

Pzpe-Zvne Roaob 


Fig. 21. — iSKfTiox at Httchin-son's Qitaeby, Eden Street, Oamaru. 
(Horizontal scale -iO ft. = 1 in. ; vertical scale, 20 ft. = 1 in. ) 
a. (hrcnisli-biown bedded tuffs, with blocks of vesicular basalt. b. Mottled yellow and red tiifis. 

r. Fine-bedded yellow and purple tuffs, with thin irregular liand.s of hard fine-grained limestone. 
'/. Hard flaggy fine-grained limestone, with irregular lenses and bands of tuff, in places glaueonitie ; ti ft. thick, 
t. Basaltic conglomerate, calcareous, 8 ft. thick. 

/'. Glaueonitie greensands. fossiUferous, with Pdcliymnyns parki in great abundance. 
{/. Slope clays and silts. }/. Yellow silts. 

The limestone, as well as the irregulai' layers of tuli' in the limestone, contain fine 
splinters of black minerals. The limestone is in places so fine-grained as to resemble 
lithographic stone. It contains fossils, but no recognizable forms could be extracted, 
on account of the hardness and shattered condition of tlic rock. 

The strike of the beds, so far as can be judged from the short exposure (Plate X), 
is about north-west - south-east. The dip is about north-east (true), at angles varying 
from 12° to 17°. 

The conglomerate is about 8 ft. thick, and consists of rounded and semi-rounded 
pebbles of basalt set in a calcareous tuff matrix. Some angular pieces of basalt are 
also present. At the base of the conglomerate, and resting on the inclined edges of 
the tufaceous limestone (bed d), there is a thin horizontal bed of fine lithographic 
limestone, varying from 1 in. to 6 in. thick. 

Some 8 or 10 yards south of the old quarry excavation the conglomerate is 
faulted down to the level of the limestone by a small fault, which is seen a few yards 
behind the overhanging ledge of conglomerate, as shown in Fig. 22. 

Fiu. 22. — Em.arubi) Sectio.n of Hltchinsons guARRV. 

a. Yellowish-red and purple tuff's with limestone lenses. d. Basaltic conglomerate, 8 ft thick. 

b. Hutchinson Quarry hmestone and tuffs. e. Glaueonitie greensands, fo.ssiliferous. 

c. Horizontal band of limestone, from 1 in. to Om. tluck. /. Surface clays and silts. 


The thickness of greensands as exposed 9 yards south of the quarry excavation is 
about 18 ft. The U)\ver 12 it. consists of greyish-cohjured ".laiu-onitic greensands crowded 
with Pachiiniufjati juiiki (Hutt.) and Rhizothyiis rhizoida (Hutt.). They also contain many 
molluscs, ecliiiioderm spines and plates, corals, and cup-sliai)ed bryozoans. The claws 
of a [)()werful crab, Bahonin plates, fragments of cetacean bones, a)id fish-teeth are also 

The molluscs collected from greensands (Lower Hutcliinsonian .stage) include— 

AnciJJd papillata (Tate). Pcclen hutc/iitisoni Hutt. 

Polinices (jihbosus (Hutt.). Peclett heethami Hutt. 

Polinices hiittoni von Iher. ^Pecten radiahis Hutt. 

Polinices ovatus (Hutt.). • Pecten semi plica/ >is Hutt. 

Ampullina .saturalifi (Hutt.). Pecten yahliensis Ten. -Woods. 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. Lima colorata Hutt. 

Epilonium lyratum (Zitt.). Lima paleala Hutt. 

: Siphonium planalum Sut. Lima kevif/ata Hutt. 

Cueiillcea alta .Sow. Osttea wuellerstorfi Zitt. 

: Diplodonta globulari.s (Lam.). Cast. Panope orbita Hutt. Casts. 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.). Paphia curta (Hutt.). 

iCrassatellites obe-sus (A. Ad.). ^Protocardia pidcheJla (trray). Cast, 

Gly.ciimeris cordata (?) (Hutt.). Protocardia sera Hutt. Casts. 

-Olycymeris laticostata (Q. & G.). -i-Venericardia purpurala (Desh.). 

Limopsis zitteli von Iher. Venericardia pseutes Sut. 

Pecten hutloni (Park). 

The upper portion of the greensands consists of dark-green glauconitic sands that 
seem to contain no fossils at this place. They arc obscured l)v a heavy slope deposit, 
hence their thicknes.s is unknown. Tumbled blocks of a hard brown calcareous 
sandstone, which is seen farther up Target Gully overlying the greensands on the .same 
slo]je. occur at Hutchinson's Quarry, and must be present in situ a little higher up 
the hiU. This sandstone baud contains the casts of many shells, among them that of 
Pachymagas parki (Hutt). On the Town Belt, farther up Target Gully, the upper 
portion of the greensands underlying the Awamoan shell- bed is richly fossiliferous. 

Section at DeriTs Bridge. 

The rock* represented at this place are the Uamaru stone and the greensand series of 
beds. At the base of the greensands there is a thin sheet of conglomerate composed of 
well-rounded pebbles of siliceous cement-stone. Below this, as seen at the outlet end 
of the Devil's Basin near the natural bridge, the Oamaru stone is covered with a 
thin bed of siliceous cement-stone varying from 6 in. to 12 in. thick. On the lower 
side of the natural bridge the Oamaru stone is followed by a band of hard semi- 
crystalline limestone from 2 ft. to 4 ft. thick. This band increases in thickness towards 
Brockmans Hill, and at a point half a mile north-west of the Devil's Bridge forms 
a cons|)icuous rocky ridge. 

At the Devil's Bridge the Oamaru stone is about 80 ft, thick. At the outlet from 
the Devil's Ba.sin its .strike is N. 35" E.. and the dip south-east at angles ranging 
from 18° to 2J°. 


Lvrruestone Qorge 


DevzZb BTidge 



DevhZs Basxrv 


116 ycurcLs 


Fig. 23. — Sectios .\cros.s Devil's Basin. 
a. Oamaru stone. 6. Greensands, &c. c. Pleistocene .silts. 

A diagrammatic sectional view of the cliff-face at the outlet end of the Devil'.s 
Basin at the natural bridge is shown in Fig. 24. 

Fio. 24 — Section at Outlet End op Devil's Basin. 
a. Oamaru stone through an underground passage in which the stream flows. 
6. Band of siUceou.s conglomerate from 6 in. to 12 in. thick. 

c. Soft friable glauconitic sandstone. 12 ft. thick, crowded with Pachymagas jxirki (Hutt.), especially the 

lower few feet above the conglomerate. 

d. Brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone, 30 ft. thick, in places rich in molluscs. e. Pleistocene silts. 

The greeasand-beds {c. Fig. 24), besides 
rhizoida (Hntt.), Pecten huttoni (Park), and 
considerable abundance. 

From the glauconitic calcareous sandstone 
many molluscs, including — 

-^CalyptrcBa maculcUa Q. & G. 

Turritella concava Hutt. 

Tnrrilella semiconcava Sut. 

Teredo heapkyi Zitt. 

Emarginvla wannonensis Harris. 
-^Ampullina undulata (?) Hutt. 

Astarte australis Hutt. 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.) 
■^CrassateUites obelus (A. Ad.). 

Packymagas parki, contained Rhizothyris 
Pecten heethami Hutt., the last two in 

forming the natural bridge were collected 

CucuUcBa alta {'.) Sow. 
Ldma colorata Hutt. 
Linia paleata Hutt. 
Pecten huttoni (Park). 
Pecten heethami Hutt. 
Pecten yahliensis Ten. -Woods. 
^Venericardia purpurata (Desh.) 
Venericardia pseutes Sut. 


Sections in Landon Creek, Main Branrli. PapaJcaio. 

The Oamaru stone and overl3rino; greensands and glauconitic sandstone of the 
Hutchinsonian are well exposed along the course t)f T^andon Creek, in the low cliffs 
that form the walls of the narrow gorge through which this stream Hows in the upper 
portion of its course. On the banks of the stream, at a point a little less than half 
a mile above the junction of the West branch and one mile due west of Trig. B, we have 
the section shown in Fig. 25. 

(5/ Landon, CTo 


Fio. 25. Section iv Laxdon' Ckkek, abihtt H m.i v Mii.i; abmvi: tkk Junction of thi: Wi:st Branch. 

a. Oamaru stone, 8 ft. exposed. 

6. Brown calcareou.s glauconitic sandstone, fossiliferous, (> ft. thick. 

c. Xodular {rrt'fnsaiuU, 4 J ft. thick, with many brachiopods. 

d. Rustv-brown glauconitic grcen.sands crowded witli Fnchynuigius parki Hutt. ; also contains Pecten hulUmi 

Park, P. beelhaini Hutt., and P. InitchiMoni Hutt., besides many corals, cup-shaped bryozoans, and 
cchinoderm spines; thickness exposed, 1.") in. 

From bed c were collected — 

.Etheia gauUeri (Morris). 
Terebraluli)M suessi (Hutt.) 
Liot/ii/relhi lai)donen-.*is Thoznson. 
Liothyrella sp. 
Neothtfrls tapirina (Hutt.). 

Pfic/iifnutffds eUifliciui Thomson. 
Fuchffmfiyus parki (Hutt.). 
Rhizofht/ris rhizoida (Hutt.). 
Hemithyris depressa Thomson. 

From wliat seems to be the- same bed LIttley also collected Liothyrella boefiini 
Thomson, and the coral 7m dactyla Ten. -Woods. 

A quarter of a mile higher up the stream, at the lower end of the gorge, a good 
section is exposed on the east bank. 

Landon, Ck 'vrrr^ 

Fio. 26. —Section on East Side of Landon Cbkkk. 

Ototaran . . . . . . a. Oamaru stone, .'JO ft. showing. 

\b. Brown glauconitic sandstone, oft. thick; the same as 
Hutchinsonian . . t)ed h in Fig. 2.") ; fossiliferous. 

I c. Hard nodular greensands. 

The higher portion of the Oamaru stone is glauconitic and tufaceous, and its 
upper surface along the contact with bed h is corroded and uneven. The actual 
contact is occupied by a liinonitic rubbly layer, varying from 3 in. to 9 in. thick. This 
layer contains scattered water-worn quartz pebbles. It is fossiliferous, most of the 
fossils being polyzoans, echinoderm spines, and brachiopods. The latter included JEtheia 
yauUeri (Morris) and Pachymagas sp. 

Still higher up the gorge, at the north end of the wooden tlume across Landon 
Creek, the calcareous glauconitic sandstone expands to a visible thickness of 24 ft. 


X OamaTic Borovugh Water ■-rax,e 

Fig. 27 

Section across Landon Ceeek Gobge at Xoeth End of Flume carrying Oamaru 
Borough Water-supply. 




(I. Oamaru stone, 40 ft. showing. 

b. Glauconitic sandstone, 24 ft. .showing;. 

r. High-level gravels. 

From the lower portion of the glauconitic sandstone were collected the brachiopods 

Liothyrella landonensis Thomson, Pachymaffas jmrh (Hutt.), and Hemithyris sp., and 
the molluscs — 

—Epitonium zelebori (Dkr.). Pecten hMoni (Park). 

-^Pecten beethami Hutt. Pecten semiplicatus Hutt. 

Pecten burnetti Zitt. -^Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 

Pecten hutchinsoni Hutt. Chiotie meridionalis (?) (Sow.). 

Echinoderm-remains, corals, and bryozoans are present in great abundance in this 

Section at Brockmaiis Hill. 
At this place the Waiareka tuffs are followed by tufaceous calcareous strata, which 
are overlain by the Oamaru stone w4iich crowns the hill. The succession of rocks is, — 
(a.) Waiareka tuffs, of which a thicknes.s of over 200 ft. are exposed ; near 

the road-level intruded by basaltic dykes. 
(b.) Grey and yellowish- brown calcareous tuffs, in places passing into an impure 
polvzoan limestone ; also contains bands of hard semi-crystalline lime.stone 
that are brecciated with angular fragments of basaltic material, 
(c.) Yellowish, grey, or brown calcareous sandstone, slightly tufaceous ; 24 ft. 

(e.) Oamaru stone, 28 ft. thick. 

Bed b contains molluscs, brachiopods, and many Polyzoa. The brachiopods identified 
here were Terebratulirm siiessi (Hutt.), Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.), and Mtheia gaulteri 

Among the molluscs from here were Ostrea incurva Hutt.. with borings of Pholadidea 
{P. thomsoni ?), Panope sp., and Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Section at Tabletop Hill. 
This hill lies half a mile north of Brockman's Hill. It is composed of Waiareka 
tuffs, which are surmounted by the calcareous Ototaran strata. The rocks represented 
at the summit of the hill are, — 
(a.) Waiareka tuffs. 
(b.) Soft or moderately hard yellowish-brown calcareous tuffs, mainly composed 

of comminuted corals and shells ; 12 ft. thick, 
(c.) Soft yellowish-brown calcareous sandstone ; 24 ft. thick. 

(d.) Hard yellowish-brown calcareous sandstone occupying the summit of the 
hill ; breaks up into large tabular masses ; from 2 ft. to 5 ft. exposed. 


At the east side of the hill bed c is interbedded with a band of typical Oamaru 
stone 4 ft. thick, which thins out rapidly and disappears before the west side of the 
hill is reached. This is the last appearance of the Oamaru stone to the westward. 

From bed b were collected the following (all young shells) : — 

Placunanomia incisura Hutt. -^Idma angulata Sow. 

Limofsis catenata Sut. -^l/ima hullata (Born). 

Pecten aldingeiisis Tate. ^Venericanlia difficilis (Desh.). 
Pecten deliccUultis Hutt. Chione meridionalis (?) (Sow.). 

Section at Lower End oj West Branch, Landon Creek. 

This section has already been described (page 16), and the relationship of the 
Ototaran to the Hutchinsonian illustrated by Fig. 15. 

The actual contact of the greensands and the hard semi-crystalline limestone band 
which covers the Oamaru stone is obscured by blark soil and grass. Though there 
seems to be no conglomerate bed at the of the greensands, it is quite certain 
from what can be seen that the upper surface of the hard limestone is broken, 
nodular, and glauconitic. It was in thus nodular portion that the fine brachiopod 
l/iotkffrella landonensis Thomson was found. 

Section in Waitaki Valley al Lower End oj Big Flume Creek, on South-east Side of 
Flume, South-east of Papakaio Railway-station. 

This section is important, as it shows not only tiie relationship of the Oamaru 
stone to the Hutchinsonian, but also — what is of greater significance — the relationship 
of the Oamaru stone to the Waitaki stone. 


Oamario Borough Wat£r-Tcuce 

J20 toFeebles 

Fto. 28. — Section i.n Waitaki Valley at .Moith of Bk; Flume Creek, South-east Side. 

a. Mottled brown and green tuff.s with calcareous 
layers ; contain scattered blocks of vesicular 
basalt up to (5 in. in diameter, also splinters 
and broken crystals of dark - coloured 
augite, &c. 

h. Bed of coarse tuif, 12 in. to 18 in. thick, with 
widely scattered angular blocks of vesicular 

c. Mottled brown and green tuff.s, much like a. 

(1. Oamaru stone, 14ft. thick; typical building- 

e. Band of hard grey semi-crystalline limestone, 4 ft. 

/. (ilauconitic sandstone, 2 ft. ; crowded with Inis 
dactyla Ten.-Woods, and Gidarin spines. 

q. Glauconitic sandstone ; fossiliferous ; 26 ft. ex- 
posed ; throughout alternates with thin flaggy 
bands of harder calcareous glauconitic sand- 
stone. These bands are often nodular and 
irregular. In all cases the harder materials 
weather out as distinct projecting ledges. 

h. High-level Pleistocene gravels. 

The strike of the beds at this place is east-north-east - west-south-west, and the dip at an angle of 17° or 18°. 

The glauconitic sandstone 7 alternating with hard calcareous layers is bed m 
of Fig. 17. It forms high bluffs and cliffs, and is the typical Waitaki stone that 
overlies the greensands and forms long lines of escarpment a few miles farther up 

ft — Oamaru. 



the Waitaki Valley. Fossils are fairly abundant but difficult to extract. Among 
these collected from bed / and lower portion of q were, — 

Balanus sp. Pachymaf/as parki (Hutt.). 

Pecten huttoni (Park). ^theia gaulter-i (Morris). 

Pecten polymorphoides Zitt. Terehratvlina suessi (Hutt.). 

Pericosmns compressus IMcCoy. 
Besides containing Isis dactyla Ten.-Woods in great abundance, the lower few feet 
of the glauconitic sandstone (bed /) also contains Mopfiea liamiltniu (Thomson) and 
Flabellum sp. 

If the beds are arranged in stages we get, in ascending order — 
/ (a) Mottled brown and green tuffs | 

(b) Coarse tuff . . . . . . -Kakanui mineral tuffs. 

(c) Mottled brown and green tuffs] 

(d) Oamaru stone (upper band). 

(e) Hard grey semi-cry.stalline limestone = Deborah (or Kakanui) 

(/) Glauconitic sandstone with Isis dactyla (= greensands). 
Hutchinaonian-! (g) Glauconitic sandstone with hard calcareous flaggy layer-< 
[ (= Waitaki stone). 

Kakanui Tuffs and Breccias. 

It has already been recorded that in the area lying east of the Dunedin-Oamani 
railway-line the Oamaru stone is intercalated with coarse tuffs and mineral breccias, 
which attain their greatest thickne-ss on the coast near Kakanui, and rapidly thin out 
to the westward. The accumulation of these fragmental volcanic rocks was sufficiently 
slow to permit the marine fauna in the adjacent sea to migrate into this area. 
Hence it happens that in these inter-Oamaru stone tuffs and breccias in this area we 
have an assemblage of the contemporary molluscan life of the Oamaru stone horizon. 

The greatest development of these Ototaran tuffs and breccias is on the coast 
about a mile north of Kakanui. Westward of this the volcanic fragmental material 
thins out rapidly, and at Teschemaker's, Totara, and Deborah is only a few yards 
thick. At Weston Quarry, which is less than two miles north-west of the main 
railway-line, the tuffs have dwindled to a few feet ; while at Gay's Quarry, a mile 
north of Weston, there is no volcanic material in the Oamaru stone. The fragmental 
material from the Kakanui volcano does not appear to have reached west of Totara, 
north-west of Weston, or north of Grant's Creek. 

In the Papakaio area of the lower Waitaki Valley the Oamaru stone is also 
intercalated with a great thickness of fragmental volcanic material (Fig. 17) containing 
man)^ of the minerals found in the Kakanui tuffs. These tuffs were probably emitted 
by an independent submarine volcano that became active about the same time as the 
Kakanui volcano. The material ejected by the Papakaio volcano, as exposed in Big 
Flume Creek, contains no trace of organic remains. 

The Kakanui volcanic breccia is strongly develo])ed at Kakanui South Head 
(Fig. 19), Kakanui North Head, and on the coast from a mile to two miles north 
of Kakanui. Thomson* estimates the minimum thickness at the North Head at 130 ft. 
On the coast north of Kakanui the thickness is not less than 150 ft., and may be much 

At the North and South Heads the breccia consists of rudely bedded coarse 
angular tachyUtic material, set in a matrix of volcanic ash cemented by carbonate of 

* J. A. Thomson : •' The (lem Gravels of Kakanui ; with Remarks on the Geology of the District." 
Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxxviii, 1906, pp. 482—495 ; 4 figs. 

SuUeUn Ni <?£> 

Reference to Geolo g ical Colours &c. 



Showing Subdivisions of Oamaruian 

Qrovels. sands ano stfts 

High fevef grfwels. nutinly (^uartzose. . 
Awamoan Blue rnnrirnj days Ac. 
Creensands mth PachyinagB&oarkt... 

Oeborah (Kakanui) Limestone 

Deborah Tuffs 

Oamarti Stonp _ 

Waiareka Tu/7i 

Basaltic dykes and sills 

Scale of Chains 

20 30 40 so 60 

' ' ' ■ ^ 

Outcrupa mth observed strike ^nd dip -i^"^- 
fossils. X 

Geoliigy by Jiixrw^ Paurk. 

^aiareka Creek 


flat Top Hill Quarry 

Deborah Head 



CHAINS lO S 10 20 55 40 50 60 70 CHAINS 

'■'"Hull I I I 1 I I I 

Section alon g Line AB 


MEIhtS 100 EO O 

200 METf?0 

Mrawn, by G S If arris 1916 


lime. On the coast north of Kakanui the coarser tachylitic material gives place to 
finer ash, usually well bedded and often brecciated with angular fragments and blocks 
of vesicular basalt. To the westward the material becomes thinner and finer in 
texture, though it occasionally contains coarser layers, as at Trig. M, south-east of 

At Kakanui Quarry, also on the beach below that quarry, on the beach below 
Trig. T, on the coast two miles north of Kakanui, at Flat Top Hill, and in the 
road-cuttings half a mile east of that hill the Kakanui tuffs and breccias are fossiliferous 
in their upper portion. At Teschemaker's, Totara, Trig. M, and Weston Quarry, 
where they are only a few yards thick, fossils abound throughout. 

Xt Kakanui Quarry and in the road-cuttings lialf a mile north of Flat Top Hill 
the tuffs contain a lens or thin irregular slieet of well water-worn basaltic material 
that occurs as the uppermost member — that is, it lies immediately below the upper 
band of Oamaru .stone, and is usually fossiliferous. 

Almost everywhere the Kakanui tuffs and breccias contain angular splinters and 
cleavage pieces of many minerals, and in the vicinity of Kakanui also include fragments 
of rocks of many kinds. 'I'he presence of the minerals was noted by Walter Mantell* 
in 18+9. Afterwards they were referred to by Ulrich. Hutton, Hector, McKay, and 
Thomson. The only systematic study of these minerals was that undertaken by 
Thomson in 1905, the results being embodied in his paper on " The Gem Gravels of 
Kakanui," previously referred to. The minerals identified by Thomsonf were — 
Black augite, hornblende, feldspar (near oligodase), in large fragments ; garnet, 
■ diopside, diallage, biotite, olivine, sraaragdite, in small fragments. Among the rocks 
identified by him were : Basalt ; sandstone, limestoiie, greywacke ; quartz, mica-schist, 
granulite, and garnet-gneiss ; various basic plutonic rocks, which may be grouped in two 
classes^ I) Iherzolites, eulysites, and wehrlite (containing fine spinels), (2) garnetiferous 

The basalt, he says, contains inclusions of almost all the other rocks and minerals 
found in the breccia. 

The crystalline rocks were no doubt torn from the walls of the vent during the 
upward rush of the volcanic ejecta. Their presence in the breceias is a proof of their 
existence below the Cainozoic strata in the coastal area around Oamaru. They are 
probably the basal rocks of this region. 

The Kakanui tuffs and breccias are in most places followed conformably by the 
upper band of Oamaru stone, which is usually tufaceous and varies from a few inches 
to 10 ft. thick. In a few places a bed of fine marly clays lies between the breccias and 
the upper limestone, as on the beach immediately below the Kakanui lime-kiln. These 
marly clays appear suddenly and di.sappcar suddenly. Their lens-shaped form and 
their irregular distribution suggest that they are tongues of volcanic mud that gathered 
on the slopes of the tuff-cone. 

Fauna of Kakanui Tuffa and Breccias. 

The upper portion of this fragmental deposit contains a large assemblage of molluscs — 
an assemblage which bridges over the puzzling hiatus that seemingly existed between the 
moUuscan faunas below and above the Oamaru stone. The faunas below and above the 
Oamaru stone were long recognized to contain many features in common, and were by 
some thought to be the .same. We now know that they differ, though related in many 
features, the inter-Ototaran fauna forming the connecting-lmk. 

* Quart. .Tour. Oeol. Soc. Lond., vol. vi, 1850, p. 325. t LfX"- cit, p. 492. 

5* — Oamaru. 


Besides many molluscs, brachiopods are numerous, as well as corals, bryozoans, 
and Foraminifera. The remains of a whale, probably Kekenodon, and the teeth of 
Carcharodon and Lamna, are also found in these fragmental volcanic rocks. 

Section, Kakanui Lime-qviarry to the Sea. 

From Kakanui Quarry the outcrop of the Kakanui limestone and underlying tuffs 
runs north to Trig. L, a distance of three-quarters of a mile. The dip of the limestone 
is east — that is, towards the sea. From the quarry northward half a mile the limestone 
forms the sea-cliffs, the trend of the coast in this stretch running parallel with the strike. 


Oldj Qu,ajrry 

Fig. 29. — Section from near Kakanui Qi'arry Northward to the Sea 

n. Kakanui tuffs and breccias, consisting of red and brown ash. 

h. Hard calcareous breccia, 4^ ft. thick ; in upper portion passes into an impure limestone ; fossiliferous, 
with Liothyrella hoehmi Thomson, &c. 

c. Thin-bedded bluish-grey clays and fine sandstones ; tufaceous throughout ; 17 ft. thick; thins out to the 


d. Yellowish-brown polyzoan hmestone, the upper band of Oamaru stone, 2 ft. to 4 ft. thick. 

e. Kakanui limestone, hard, semi- crystalline, crowded with fossils. 

From bed h, 
molluscs — 

which forms a projecting ledge on the sea-face, were collected the 

Aturia australis McCoy. 

Emarginula wdnnonensis Harri.s. 

Solariella sulcatina Sut. 
-^Astrma heliotropium (Mart.). 
-^Siphonium planatum Sut. 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. (= mur- 
rayana of hand-list). 

Capulus australis (Lamk.). 

Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.). 

Colubraria n. sp. (also loc. 642). 
Genus new to fauna. 

Ficus transennus Sut. 

Epitonium nympha (Hutt.). New 
for the Miocene. 

Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.). 

Fusinus n. sp. 

Exilia sp. (?). Cast. 

Siphonalia turrita Sut. 

Scapkella elegantissima Sut. 

Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.). 

Pleurotomaria tertiaria McCoy. 

Dentalium mantelli Zitt. 

Denfalium solidum Hutt. 
^Glycymeris laticostata (Q. & G.). 

Mytilus huttoni Cossm. (= striatus 
of hand-list.) 

Pecten aldingensis Tate. 

Pecten polymorphoides Zitt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 

Venericardia acanthodes Sut. 

Venericardia difficilis var. henhami 

Cytherea chariessa Sut. 

Cardium patulum (?) Hutt. 

Cardium spatiosum (?) Hutt. 

Cardium waitakiense Sut. 

Cardium n. sp. 

Protocardia sera Hutt. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Pholadomya neozelanica Hutt. 

Many casts, fragments, and im- 


In addition to these, Uttley collected — 

-^ Turbo marshalli Thomson. Pecten delicatulus Hutt. 

^Turritella carlottce Watson. Pecten triphooki Zitt. 

Siphonalia conoid ea (Zitt.)- -^ Lima angulata Sow. 

Siphoncdia costata (Hutt.). Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Lapparia sp. ^Chione mesodesma (Q. & G.). 

The brachiopods from the horizon of the Kakanui tuffs were, — 

LiolhyreUa hoehmi Thomson. Mfheia gaulteri (Morris). 

Liothyrella oamarutica (Boehm). Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.). 

Terehratulina suessi (Hutt.). Hemithyris sp. 

Among the corals were Balanophyllia kecfori Ten. -Woods, Sphenolrochiis hutloniunus 
Ten. -Woods, and the beautiful form TrochocycUhus mantelU M. Edw. & H. 

From bed d, lying immediately below the limestone, were collected — 

^Siphonalia nodosa (Mart.). ^Anomia hiUtoni (?) Suter. 

Cymbiola corruyata (Hutt.). Cucullcea alia Sow. 

Epilonium lyratum (Zitt.). Lima paleala Hutt. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. -i-Venericardia difficilis (Dcsh.). 
Oslrea angasi (?) Sow. 

From this bed Uttley also records — 

Turbo marshalli Thomson. Dentalium solidum Hutt. 

-^Turritella carlottce Watson. 

The brachiopods from this bed include — 

lAothyrella hoehmi Thomson. Mlheia gaulteri Morris. 

Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.). Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.). 

The large echinoderra Pericosmus compressus McCoy occurs both in bed b and bed d. 

The brachiopods collected from the Kakanui limestone were, — 

Liothyrella oamarulica (Boehm). Mtheia gaulteri (Morris). 

Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.). Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.). 

From this limestone Uttley collected the followiiig forms not found by the author : — 

Liothyrella concenlrica (Hutt.) (?). Hemithyris sublcevis Thomson. 

Terebralella kakanuiensis Hutt. 

The Kakanui limestone is about 20 ft. thick, and has been extensively quarried for 
burning into lime. In [)laces it is crowded with brachiopods. In its u{)per portion it 
becomes glauconitic and sandy. Besides })rachiopods it contains a few mollu.scs, which 
are as a rule difficult to extract. The molluscs recorded from it by Uttley are, — 

Aturia australis McCoy. Venericardia sp. 

Pecten aldingensis Tate. 

A fine example of Aturia australis from the Kakanui limestone is in the Otago 
University Mu.seum. The first remains of the giant penguin Palfeeudyples antarcticus 
Huxley were found in the Kakanui limestone by W. B. D. Mantell* in 1849. 

* G. A. Mantell, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, Aug., 1850, vol. vi, p. 675 ; and Thoma.s Huxlev. Quart. Jour. 
Oeol. Sac, 1859, vol. xv. 


Below the Kakanui limestojie thei'o is in [)laces a band of soft ])(>lyzoaii limestone 
of variable thickness. It is iisuall}'^ tufaceous and friable, as may be seen between the 
old limestone-quarry at Kakanui and Trig. T. This friable polyzoan band represents the 
upper band of Oamaru stone. It is often crumbling and friable, and where tufaceous 
usually contains small brachiopods, among which Terebraluliiia -suessi (Hutt.) is always 

From a point a little south of Trig. T the Kakanui limestone and underlying upper 
band of tufaceous Oamaru stone dij) towards the sea, and along the coast for half 
a mile iorm a low undercut rock-shelf fronting the sea. To the southward, opposite 
the old quarry the limestone is bent up at the edge so as to override the Kakanui 
breccia and tuffs that are strongly developed from here to the North Head. The 
turning-up or warping of the southern edge of the limestone exposes the rocks below 
it on the coast below the quarry. 

a h c d 

Fig. 30. — ^Section on North or Kakanui Quarry. 

a. Kakaniii breccias and tuffs. 

b. Hard calcareous fossiliferous volcanic breccia; gradually loses its calcareous cliaiacUr to tlie southward. 

and merges into a mottled brownish-greon tuff ; 9 ft. thick. 

c. Thin-bedded blue and grejish-blue clays and fine soft sandstones. The upper 18 in. are line tuffs; and 

all the material forming the clays and .sandstones is tufaceous, and speckled throughout with pieces of 
ash and fine breccia. Thickness, 17 ft. From the clays was collected a single example f)f Liolfiyrella 
boehmi Thomson. 

d. Calcareous rubblv tufaceous bed, varying from in. to 18 in. thick ; richly fossihferous. This is bed f/ 

of Fig. 29. 

e. Yellowish-grey polyzoan limestone ; 3() ft. thick. /'. Hard semi-crystalHnc limestone: :50 ft. thick. 

The fossils collected from beds b and (/ have already been enumerated on the 
preceding page. 


Section Jrmn Beach below Trig. T to near Three Roads. 

From a point on the beach near Three Roads .southward for a mile the Kakanui 
tuffs occupy the whole of the coast-line, and in places attain a thickness of not less than 
160 ft. At Three Roads, which is the most northerly point reached by them in this 
area, they strike almost north and south (magnetic), and dip east at an angle of 28° — 
that is, the strike is parallel with the shore-line. From this locality southward towards 
Kakanui the strike bends round with the trend of the coast, and at Two Roads, near 
Trig. T, it is N. 70° E. and the dip still seawards. 

Along this portion of the coast the tuffs have been worn into a wide nearly level 
])latform, which is seen at low water to be about liO yards wide. On this plane of 
marine erosion the strike of the tufts is conspicuously displayed by the long lines of 
projecting outcrop of the more resistant beds. 

The sea-level plane of erosion is bounded on the landward side by low cliffs that 
are surmounted by the 12 ft. raised shelly beach which contours around the coast at 
the Rifle Butts and Cape Wanbrow. 

At Two Roads the tuffs are calcareous, and brecciated with angular tachylitic 
material. Here they disappear below the limestone, which is followed by greensands. 


Even where coarsely tachylitic, within a few feet of the limestone they contain numerous 
fossils, including molluscs, brachiopods, and corals. The material in which the fossils 
occur is so hard and coarsely brecciated with tachylitic fragments that the author in 
1905 erroneously considered this rock a shattered basaltic flow. The few molluscs 
extracted from the calcareous matrix of this rock were, — 

Cymatium minimum (?) (Hutt.). ^Psammobia lineolata Gray. 

Anomia sp. Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Chione meridionalis (?) (Sow.). 

From the limestone as exposed in the road-cutting 150 yards due east of Trig. T, 
Uttley collected the brachiopods- 

LiothyreUu oamarutioa (Boehiu). Terebratella kakanuiensis Hutt. 

JEtheia gaulteri (Morris). Hemithyris sp., cf. squamosa (Hutt.). 

Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.). 

From the overlying greensands the author collected Pachymtigas parki (Hutt.), 
Pecfen hntloni (Park), and Pecten ihlicatulus Hutt. 

On the beach at Three Roads, at the northern limit reached by the Kakanui 
breccias and tuffs, the material in the upper portion is calcareous, finer in texture, and 
intensely tough. Here on the weathered surfaces of the rock were collected a few 
molluscs, including- 

Siphonalia turriki Sut. ^Dosinia cmrulea (Reeve). 

^Diplodonlu zelutulicu (Gray). Panope wortkitiytoni Hutt. 

From this horizon of the tuffs Uttle>' collected — 

Lima sp. aff. -^aiigulafa Sow. Chione ehiloetisls truncata Sut. 

Ostrea sp. ^Mesodesma suhtriangulaium (Gray). 

-^ Venericardia purpurata Desh. 

Section in Road-cutting, Deborah Road, Half a Mile due East of Rocky Peak. 
The Kakanui limestone here lies directly on tlie Kakanui tuffs. It forms a shallow 
fold, as shown in Fig. 31. 

Fig. 31. — ."Section in Roau-cuttinu Hai.k a -Mile due Kast of Rocky Pkak. 

((. Kakanui tuffs and breccias ; B ft. showing at south end of cutting. 

b. Hard semi-crystalline limestone, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. thick showing in cuttinj:. 

c. Surface clays, soil, and gravel. 

The higher portion of bed a consists of coarse calcareous tuff containing augite, 
hornblende, olivine, and feldspar. The molluscs collected from this horizon were, — 
^Astrcea heliotropium (?) (Mart.). Pecten ckathamensis (?) Hutt 

-^Siphonium planatum Sut. Pecten huUoni (Park). 

-Crepidula tmnoxyki ('.) (Lesm.) (^ crepidula Pecten yahliensis Ten. -Woods, 
of hand -list). Ostrea wuellerstorfi Zitt. 

Dentalium mantelli (?) Zitt. -^Diplodonta zelandica (Gray). 

Glycymeris sp. Venericardia sp. 

Mytilus huitoni Cossm. (=striatus of hand- Cardium sp. 

list). Protocardiu sera (?) Hutt. 

Pecten aldtngexsis Tate. 


From the calcareous tuff or mineral breccia here Uttley collected the following 
species not found by the author : — 

-^Turritella carlottcn Watson. Cardium sp. 

Sifhoruilia turrita Sut. ^Chione spissa (Desh.). 

Emarginula wannonensis Harris. ~ Mesodesma subtriangukdum 

Deniulium soliduni Hutt. (Gray). 

The brachiopods collected from the tuft's here were, — 

Liothyrella oamarutica (Boehm). Hemithyris depressa Thomson. 

Terehratulina suessi (Hutt.). Magella carinala Thomson. 

Mtheia gaidteri (Morris). Abundant. 

From this place have also been recorded — 

Liothyrdla boehmi Thomson. Liothyrella pulchra Thomson. 

Hemithyris sp., cf. squamosa (Hutton). 

Besides molluscs and brachiopods, the author collected from the Kakanui breccia at 
this place teeth of Carcharodon angnstidens Agassiz, Lamna and other fish, cetacean 
bones, plates of Balanus, Cidaris plates and spines, and numerous corals, including 
Flabellum radians Ten. -Woods and Flabellmn sp. 

From the limestone was collected Liothyrella boehmi Thomson. 

In the road-cutting 330 yards south of last section 10 ft. of the tuffs and breccias 
are exposed, and 6 ft. of the limestone. The lowermost 9 in. of the limestone is here 
brecciated with basaltic fragments, and contains Liothyrella boehmi Thomson in abundance, 
also a large thick oyster (probably Ostrea nelsoiiiana Zitt.), and large fragments of 
cetacean bone. 

About 120 yards from the Three Roads, in a shallow cutting in the road going 
west, there is an outcrop of grey calcareous glauconitic greensands, crowded with 
Pachym,agas parki (Hutt.). Among the molluscs well enough preserved to be identified 
were collected Pecten hutloni (Park), P. delicatulus Hutt., P. beethami Hutt.. and a 
Natica. Cidaris plates and spines, corals, and cup-shaped Ceiepora were also present in 

The greensands at this place rest on tuffs which are highly calcareous in their 
upper portion. 

Section in Road North of Rocky Peak. 

In the road-cutting here are ex])osed 12 ft. of tufts. Overlying tlie tuft's lies a 
thin bed of glauconitic basaltic conglomerate containing Ostrea nelsoniana Zitt., Peclen 
delicatulus Hutt., and Liothyrella boehmi Thomson. Above the conglomerate lies the 
hard semi-crystalline Flat Top Hill (Kakanui) limestone, which is tufaceous and friable 
in its lower jjortion. From the tufaceous horizon was collected Liothyrella boehmi 

Section at Teschemaker's old Quarry. 
At Teschemaker's old Oamaru stone quarry, situated a mile east of Teschemaker's 
Eail way-station, the Oamaru stone is interbedded with a bed of brown well-bedded tuffs 
14 ft. thick. The lower 4 ft. of these tuffs is calcareous and mainly composed of 
comminuted shells, Polyzoa, corals, and echinoderm spines. 
Among the molluscs collected from the tuffs were, — 

^Siphonium planatum Sut. Pecten huttoni (Park). 

Turritella sp. Cast. Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Pecten delicatulus Hutt. Clavagella sp. Genus new to New 

Pecten aldingensis Tate. Zealand fauna. 

Pecten venosus Hutt. 


The only brachiopods collected here were a Hemithyris sp., a Mof/ella sp., and 
.Etheia gaulteri (Morris). 

Section at Totara old Stone-quarry. 

In the old (|uariv near the lai I way-siding there are two bands of Oaniarii stone, 
separated by a bed of fossiliferous calcareous tuft' that is seen to vary from IS in. to 
6 ft. thick as exposed in the old tramway-cutting. From the tuft's were collected the 
brachiopods — 

Mtheia gaulteri (Morris). Magella curinuta Thomson. 

Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.). 

The following molluscs wen- collected from the tuft's : — 

^Siphonium planatum Sut. Pecten delivatulus fintl. 

-.-Anemia huttoni ('.) Sut. Peden yahliensis Ten.-Wood.s. 

Section at Weston old Stone-quarry. 

The section exposed in the face of this abandoned quarry shows two bands of 
Oamaru stone separated by a calcareous tuff. 

Of the lower band of Oamaru stone there is exposed a thickness of 26 ft. Tho 
lied of calcareous tuft' which follows varies from a few inches to 3 ft. thick. The 
upper band of Oamaru stone is 11 ft. thick, and contains peculiar len.s-shaped pockets 
of tuft'. In places the tuft-bed is crowded witli brachiopods, among which were 
collected- - 

Neothyrix idlleyi Thomson (M>S.). Liothyrella pnle/ira Thomson. 

Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.). Pachymagas parki (Hutt.). 

From this band of tuft' Uttley collected the brachiopods Mtheia gaulteri (Morris), 
and Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.). 

Section at Trig. M . near Sebaslopol. 

The succession at this hill is quite clear, though tin- thickness of the beds caniu)t 
be determined in all cases, on accoimt of slope deposit and tumbled blocks. The 
beds represented here are, in ascending order, — 

(a.) Tuffs and breccias. 

[h.) Tufaceous limestone, containing a bed of conglomerate i in. thick near the 

top, with pectens, &c., and brachiopods. 
(c.) Tufaceous limestone, with irregular bands of hard semi-crystalline limestone, 

6 ft thick. 
[d.) Bed of reddish-yellow tuffs, 5 ft. thick, with Crepidula striata (Hutt.). 
(e.) Highly tufaceous limestone, 20 ft. thick, with numerous molluscs, brachiopods, 

and corals ; containing splinters and broken crystals of hornblende and 

feldspar, as well as scattered well-rounded quartz pebbles. 

The lower tuffs (beds a) are of considerable but unknown thickness. Thev are 
probably the Waiarekan tuffs. 

Beds b, c, d, and e are undoubtedly Ototaran. The fauna of the uppermost 
bed (e) would tend to show that this horizon is the equivalent of the calcareous tuff 
band forming the closing member of the Kakanui tuffs, or perhaps of the Kakanui 
limestone itself. Collections from this bed were made by Thomson and Uttley in 


1911. The result of these collections is given below. (T. & U.) = collected bv 
Thomson and Uttley in 1914. (P.) =: collected by Park in 1916. 

Emdigiriula- ivaiDionensis Harris. (T. & U.). —Area norfe-zealaiidirp Sniitli. (T. (S: U.) 

Truchus n. sp. (T. & U.). (= decussata of hand-list). 

Turbo sp., operculum. (P.). Pecten aldin^ensis Tate. (T. & U.). (P.). 

— Serpidorbis sipho (Lanik.) ('.). (T. k U.). Pecten acxrementi/.s Hutt. (T. & U.). 
^ Siphonium plaxutuin Sut. (T. & U.). Pecten delicatulus Hutt. (P.). 

Turritdla ambulacrum Sow. (T. & U.). Pecten huichinsoni Hutt. (P.). 

^Twritella .symmetrica Hutt. (T. & U.). Pecten venosm Hutt. (T. & U.). (P.). 

— Capulus australis (Lamk.). (T. & [].). —Lima angulatu Sow. (T. & U.). (P.). 
^Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & (Jr.). (T. & U.). ^lAma hullata (Born). (T. & U.). (P.). 
^Cahjptrcea maculatainfiata (Rntt.). (T. & C). Lima kuttoni {{) Sut. (P.). 
-^Polinices amphialus (Wats.). (T. & VJ.). -i-Chione spissa (Desh.). (T. & U.) 

Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.). (T. & U.). (= crassa of hand-list). 

Polinices huttoni (von Iher.). (T. & U.). Chione meridionalis (Sow.). (P.). 

Ficun transennus (?) Sut. (T. & U.). Cardium sp. (T. &. U.). 

— Gadinia conica Angas. (T. & U.). -^ Protocardia ptdcheUa (Gray). (T. & U.). 
Dentalium solidum Hutt. (T. & U.). 

Of the twenty-nine species of enumerated above no less than thirteen 
(or 45 per cent.) are Recent. It is probable that a more exhaustive collection would 
reduce the proportion of living forms. 

The brachiopods collected from this bed by Thom.son and Uttley were, — 

LiothiireUa oamarutica (Boehm), Terebratulina siiessi (Hutt.). 

Liothgrella boehmi Thomson. Mtheia gaulteri (Morris). 

Liothyrella pulchra Thomson. Hemithyris sp., (/. ■squamosa (Hutt.). 
Terebratelh totaraensis Thomson. 

Section on North Bank of Parson's Creek. 

Near the mouth of this stream, and at intervals along the north bank, there 
are outcrops of tuffs capped by a bed of basaltic conglomerate 8 ft. thick that in its 
turn is followed by a bed of yellowish-brown tufaceous calcareous sandstone or impure 
coralline limestone, 20 ft. thick. The conglomerate is calcareous, and in places 
glauconitic, and from it were collected — 

Dentalium mantelli Zitt. Ostrea nelsoniana Zitt. (?) 

Ostrea mackayi Sut. Ostrea uniellerstorji Zitt. 

The limestone is capped by a basalt-flow, and the tuffs below the conglomerate 
are underlain by basalts. The succession of rocks is much like that on the north 
bank of Awamoa Creek near Deborah. Though these rocks are isolated from all well- 
defined horizons, their fossil-contents would place them in the Ototaran. 

Section in Road-cutting near Ardgowan Bridge across Oamaru Creek. 

About 65 yards from the bridge across Oamaru Creek, on the east side of the 
road leading to Ardgowan Creamery, there is an outcrop of Oamaru stone which is 
followed conformably by a tufaceous crumbling polyzoan bed about 18 in. thick. 
Above this lies a bed of basaltic conglomerate 6 ft. thick, with a calcareous glauconitic 

The Oamaru stone is the typical building-stone. The thin bed of friable polyzoan 
material contains, besides Polvzoa and echinoderni remains, the fragments of molluscs 


(none of which could be extracted in good condition), and some brachiopods, the latter 
including — 

' Mtheia (jaulteri (Morris). Terebratella s]).. perhaps neoze- 

Tcrebratulina sp. (0, probably lyuesui landica von Iher. (new to 

(Hutt.)- Oamaru district). 

The basaltic conijlonierate here seems to occupy- the same stratigrapliical |)osition 
as the basaltic conglomerate at Hutchinson's Quarry. From it were collected JElheia 
(/aiilteri (Morris), a large Terehralula resembling Liofhyrella hoehmi Thomson, and some 
well-preserved teeth of Careharodon anguslidem Agassiz. 

The conglomerate also contains many molluscs, most fragmentary and difficult 
to identify. A list of those collected here is given in the cliapter dealing witli the 

Section at Fortififutinn Hill. 

Here the Oamaru stone is intercalated with several beds of yellowish-coloured 
tufaceous material. The main body of Oamaru stone rests on the Waiarekau 
tuffs, which are well exposed at the foot of the limestone escarpment. 

In the lowermost of the tufaceous beds immediately overlying the main body of 
Oamaru stone, at a point opposite the village of Alma, were collected several brachiopods, 
among which were, — 

Ltothyrella fulchm Thomson. Tevchmtella totaraensis Thomson.' 

Terebialiih'na suessi (Hutt.). HemHliipia sp. 

(See also bottom of page 55.) 


From Boatmans Harbour to the end of the inner breakwater at Oamaru, and 
from there westward to near the Waiareka Junction, the high ground is occupied by 
a massive development of tachylitic breccia, generally nmch jointed and decomposed. 
A fine exposure of this Ijreccia is .seen in the sea-ditTs between the outer breakwater 
and Boatman's Harbour, and at the old Harbour Board (piarry at the end of the 
outer breakwater, where the quarry-face is over i(X) ft. high at its highest point. 

The tachylitic breccia consists of large and small angular blocks, and fragments 
of tachvlite set in a calcareous matrix. At the old quarry and in the cliff's below 
the lighthouse tlie breccia is traversed by many nearly vertical veins of sedimentary 

Path to Li^htTiovise 
I d/ 

\^31 -^ 76' * 64-' ^ 

I* Eccrbozcr-Boccrci Qwccrry --A 

Fig. 32. — Skctio>' from Steps leadisu ur to Lighthouse to Hakbock I'oaru Quarky at jem) of 

Outer Ureakwater. 

a. Tachylitic brppcia. c. .Slope deposit. 

b. Raised beach, with Recent sliells (under slope deposit). (/. Pleistocene silis. 


The tachylitic breccia is probably a submarine basaltic flow that cooled rapidly 
and became shattered by coming in contact with the sea-water. The calcareous 
matrix consists of impure limestone consolidated by secondary calcite. 

The sedimentary veins which traverse the tachylitic breccia consist of glauconitic 
.sandstone and impure limestone, the latter mainly composed of comminuted Polyzoa 
and echinoderm remains. As a rule, these veins vary from almost nothing to 6 in. 
wide, though some are wider and irregular in form. The limestone vein at the bottom 
of the steps leading up to the lighthouse varies from 12 in. to 18 in. wide. Its' walls 
are slickensided and scored with nearly vertical grooves and stricc. It is apparent 
that ]'ock-movement took place after the filling of the veins. Fig. 32a is an enlargement 

of the vein at the steps. 

Fig. .S2a.— Enlak4;ed Section of Lumestoxe Vein in Tachylitic Breccma at Steps leading up to 

Oamaeu Lighthouse. 

a. Tachylitic breccia. 

6. Impure sandy glauconitic limestone. 

Thin sheets of fine-grained Umestone varying from to 
IJ in. thick, apparently secondary calcite. 

As shown in Plate II and Fig. 4. the tachylitic breccia overlies the Boatman's 
Harbour beds at South Oamaru. It is followed by a great thickness of well-bedded 
tuffs and breccias, which are well exposed on the golf-links, in the railway-cuttings 
going up to Waiareka Junction, and in the old Oainaru Borough quarry in Chamberlin 
Street, opposite the Oamaru Gardens. 

At the old road-mgtal quarry at the Chamberlin Street end of (_)amaru Creek 
Gorge, and at the present Oamaru Borough road-metal quarry in the gorge, the tuffs 
and breccias are overlain by a dolerite, which continues from the upper end of the gorge 
to the old Phoenix dam. 


OarruvricCk Go' 
Id. Quarry 

I Quarry fcuce 

oppostte Q(jsrd.e7hL 

QolfLvnlcs ^°' 

Fig. 153. — ^Section along Chamberlin Street, opposite Oamaru Garden.s. 
II. Tuffs and breccias. 6. Dolerite. 

The dolerite consists of plagioclase and augite in well-developed intergrown crystals. 
At the upper end of the old Phoenix dam, a mile above the junction of Parson's Creek, 
the tuffs and a flow of basalt are underlain by an outcrop of hard grev semi-crystalline 
flaggy limestone. There is nothing to indicate the age of this limestone, but as 
judged by its relationship to the tuffs it may be referred to the Ototaran. 

Plate IX. 

James Park, plmtn.] 


A. C. Giffori/, /i/mto.] 


Breccia, near Breakwatkr, Oamaru. 

Geol. Bull. No. 20. \ 

[7'o face p(ige 76. 




Glauconitic Sandst one — ro /( / / n iied. 


Upper Tari;et Gully Sections 



Section on East Side of Target (iully 



Section across Target (Jully above 


Town Belt 



Section South of Duntroon . . 



Section at Otiake 



Section on Left Bank of Waitaki River, 



c gr 

3ensands. (c) Conglomerate, mainly basaltic. 




Fauna of Conglomerate 
(Jlauconitic Greensands 

Fauna of Glauconitic Greensands 
Glauconitic Sandstone 
Target Ciiilly Sections 

Section at Target CJuUy Shell-bed. . 
Section at Ardgowan Shell- bed 

(a) Glauconitic sandstone. (b) Glauconi 

The Hutchinsonian consists of two well-marked members — namely, glauconitic sands (the 
Lower Hutchinsonian) and a glauconitic calcareou.s sandstone (the Upper Hutchinsonian 
= Waitaki stone). The ba.sal conglomerate is present only in the Oamaru area. The 
stratigraphical unconformity between the Kakanui limestone ajid the gieensands as seen at 
Kakanui. All Day Bay, and Deborah is only local, and has no palajontological significance. 
Elsewhere complete conformity e.xists between the Ototaran and Hutchinsonian. 

The greensands at All Day Bay and Kakanui rest directly on a corroded and uneyen 
surface of the hard .semi-crystalline Kakanui limestone ; but at Deborah, Hutchinson's 
Quarry, Devil's Bridge, and Landon Creek a bed of conglomerate lies between the 
limestone and the greensands. 

At the Devil's Bridge the conglomerate consists of rounded and semi-rounded 
pebbles of hard siliceous cement-stone set in a glauconitic sandy matrix ; but else- 
where the conglomerate is basaltic, the matrix consisting of fine volcanic ash often 
mixed with glauconitic sands. Almost everywhere the pebbles are coated with a thin 
shining dark-brown or black film that is mainly tricalcic phosphate. 

The presence of the conglomerate is an evidence that some portion of the frag- 
mental volcanic material ejected during the Ototaran, or an earlier stage, had been 
uplifted by a local crustal movement, or, what is perhaps more probable, piled up 
till it formed shallow reefs, which thereby became subject to the wear-and-tear of the 
tides and j)i'evailing sea-currents. The glauconitic material contained in the matrix 
would lead to the inference that the conglomerate was not formed as an ordinary fluvio- 
marine gravel. This view is fui'ther strengthened by the fact that the conglomerate is 
followed conformably l)y glauconitic green.sands that contain corals, bryozoans, echinodernis, 
pectens, and brachiopods — tiie fauna of off-shore banks within the 20-fathom line covered 
with clear water, and not that of a turbid sea-strand. 

Fauna oj Conglomerate. 
At Hutchinson's Quarry the conglomerate contains fossils, but none that could be 
identified were extracted from it. The molluscs collected from the conglomerate near 
Ardgowan Creamery were, — 

Clio sp. Melina zealandica (1) Sut. 

^Capulus uustralis C^) (Lamk.). Pecten delicatulus Hutt. 

Ampullina suturalis {1) (Hutt.). Ldma colorata{'\) Hutt. 

Cyprcea trelissickensis {'i.) Sut. Lima htUtoni(1) Sut. 

Galeodea senex (Hutt.). Ostrea nelsotnana Zitt. 

Nucula sagittata Sut. Protocardia sera Hutt. 

-^Anomia waUeri{'i) Hect. Panope worthingioni Hutt. 


From this conglomerate were tilso collected teeth of Carcharodon angwttidevs Agassiz, 
and the brachiopods Mtheia gaulteri (Morris) and Liothyrella boehmi ('.) 'I'homsi n. 


The glauconitic sandy beds at All Day Bay, Kakanui, Hutchinson's Quarry, and 
Grant's Creek are loose and incoherent, but at tlie upper end of Target Gully, at 
Landon Creek, and in the Waitaki area they form fairly coin[)act "lauconitic sandstones. 

Fminu oj Glauconitic (heeiisands. 

The fauna of this horizon is distinguished by the abundance of the hrachiopod 
Pachymagas parki (Hutt.), by the presence of the corals Isii^ dactyla Ten. -Woods, 
and Mopsea fiamiltoni (Thomson), and of the cup-shaped bryozoan Celleponoia mnnmularia 
Busk. Besides these there occur many pectens and other molluscs. Pachymagas parki 
is present almost everywhere, but the other fossil.s mentioned may be abundant at one 
place and absent at another. 

The molluscs collected from the greensands at Deborah and Hutchinson's Quarry 
were, — 

Deborah. 'Hutchinson's 



Epitonium n. sp. . . 



— ■ — lyratum (Zitt.) . . 

. . 3 


Xenophora carrugata (Reeve) . 


Turritella cmtcava (?) Hutt. . 


-Siphonalut dilatata (Q. & G.). 


Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 


Strvthiolaria Uiherculata Hutt. 



Dentalium solidum Hutt. 



Cymbiola comigata (Hutt.) 



Fnsiniis solidus (?) Sut. 


Cardinm patulum (?) Hutt. . 



spatiosum (?) Hutt. 



Ldma colorata Hutt. 


X 1 

— ^ paleata Hutt. . . 

X 1 3 

Mactra attenuata Hutt. 


Panope worthingtoni Hutt. 


— orbita Hutt. 

Cucullcea alta Sow. . . 

■^Diplodonta globula/ris (Lamk.) 

Ostrea waellerstorfi Zitt. 


Paphia carta Hutt. . . 

Pecten beethami Hutt. 

X i 

hutchinsoni Hutt. 

X 1 

- — — htittoni (Park) . . 


X 2 

semiplicatus Hiitt. 


X 3 

yahliensis Ten.-Woods . 


-: — — radiatus Hutt. . . 

-Protocardia palchella (Gray) . 

sera Hutt. 

X 3 

^Siphonmm planatum Sut. 

■^Venericardia purpurata (Desh. 

) • 


Of the thirty-one molluscs enumerated above, six (or 19.3 per cent.) are Recent. 


ffLAcroNiTir Saxdstonk (Upper Hutchinsonian). 

The orlauconitic sandstone follows the jjreensands conformably at the slioll-bed 
(Target Gully), at the shell-bed (Ardgowan). at the Devil's Bridge, at Landon Creek 
(west branch and main branch), and Big Flume Creek, Waitaki Valley. At the 
shell-bed, Target Gully, it con.sists of soft glauconitic sandstone interbedded with 
hard yellowish-brown .sandstone bands. At the Devil's Bridge it forms the natural 
bridge and the cliffs bounding the stream below that place. .\t Landon Creek it is 
a compact yellowish-brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone, and at Big Flume Creek a 
yellowish-brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone interbedded with thin, more calcareous, 
bands that weather out in the cliflf-faces as projecting cornices. Here it is indis- 
tinguishable from the typical Waitaki stone, which forms long horizontal escarpments 
at many places on the south side of the Waitaki Valley between Bortons and 

Tarqel (hdhj Sections. 

The olive-green well-bedded calcareous tuffs which underlie the Hutchinson Quarry 
limestone near Eden Street, Oamaru, crop out on the same slope 250 yards farther 
up Target Gully, at a height of 110 ft. above the sea— that is, the beds have risen 
43 ft. in that distance. At this point there is no outcrop of the fossiliferous 
Hutchinsonian beds, but small fragments of hard grey semi-crystalline limestone occur 
in a few places on the grassy slope above the tuff-outcrops. Some 40 yards farther 
up the gully, .still on the east slope, the yellowish-brown calcareous glauconitic sandstone 
crops out at 150 ft. above the sea. It is in places crowded with easts, manv of which 
are those of Pac/ii/mru/as parki (Hutton). 

Still higher uj) the gully the glauconitic .sandstone again crops out at the 180 ft. 
contour, at a point about half-way between Hutchin.son's Quarry and the Town Belt. 
South of the Town Belt boundary it forms a continuous outcrop 45 yards long. Here 
the underlying softer glauconitic rock has been worn away, leaving the harder 
glauconitic sandstone band as a projecting ledge in the form of a low rock shelter. 

W E. 

Ki(i. :i4.— SwTiox 20 Vakds .Soith oi- Town Bklt, .neak 'J'akuet Gully Shkll-hkd. 

(/. Soft glauconitic sandstone. 6. Band of hard glauconitic sandstone, 2 ft. to 4 ft. cxpo.sed 

c. Pleistocene higli-iovol greywacke gravels, (50 ft. thick. 

From Hutchin.son's Quarry to the Town Belt the Hutchinsonian beds are overlain 
by a thick deposit of high-level greywacke gravel. At the Town Belt the hard band 
of glauconitic sandstone, which has been described above as cropping out at ntervals 
on the gras,sy slop^, has been worn away ; and in the shallow gutter thus formed 
there occurs what has been described as the Target Gully shell-bed of Awamoan age 
(Fig. 35). 

At the Town Belt the Target Gully shell-bed lies on a .soft glauconitic .sandstone. 
.A.bout 20 ft. below the shell-bed this sandstone becomes strongly glauconitic and 


calcareous. As exposed in the road-cutting it is friable, jointed, and seamed with 
soft powdery carbonate of lime. The section from Target Creek eastward along the 
Town Belt is shown in Fig. 35. 

Pipe -line Rooud, 

Target QuJly Shell Bed 178 

TcbTget Creek, 

75 above. sea-leveZ 

Fig. 35. — Section at Taroet Gully Shell- bed. 

Well- bedded olive-green tufEs. 
Unknown, obscured by slope deposit. 
Soft glauconitic sandstone, fossiUferous. 

e. Target Gully shell- bed (Awanioan), li ft. exposed 

f. Surface clavs and gravels. 

(L Band of hard yellowish-brown glauconitic sandstone, 2 ft. to 4 ft. thick. 

The molluscs found in the glauconitic sandy bed below the shell-bed at Target 
Grullv were, — 

Acleon proecursorius Sut. 

Alectrion sodalis (Hutt.). 

Ancilla papillata (Tate). 
^Anomia hultoni Sut. 
-^Arca novoB-zealandicB Smith. 

Area subvelata Sut. 
^Calliostoma pellucidum (Val.). 

Calyptrcea maccoyi Sut. 
-^Gcdyptrcea maculata (Q. & 6.) 
—Cantharidus tenebrosus A. Ad. 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Gorbula humerosa Hutt. 

Corbula pumila Hutt. 
■^Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 
-^Crepidula monoxi/la ( 

Crepidula gregaria Sow. 

Cxmullcea alta Sow. 

Cylichnella soror Sut. 

Dentalium tnantelli Zitt. 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. 
—Diplodonta globularis (Lamlc). 
-^Diplodonta zelandica (Gray). 

Drillia calUmorpha Sut. 

Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.). 

Latirus acuticingulatus Sut. 

Mytilus hultoni Cossm. (= striatus 
of hand-list). 
■i-Natica zelandica Q. & G. 
*Nucula sagittata Sut. 
-^Ostrea corrugata Hutt. 

Panope orbila Hutt. 

Pecten hutchinsoni Hutt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 
-^Pecten radiatus Hutt. 

Pecten semiflicatits {]) Hutt. (frag- 
ment only). 

Pecten vnlliamsoni Zitt. 

Pecten yahliensis Ten.-Woods. 

Placunanomia incisura Hutt. 
-^Placnnanomia zelandica (Gray). 

Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.). 
— Psammobia lineolata Gray. 
-^Siphonalia caudafa (?) (Q. & G.). 

Siphonalia nodosa zitleli Sut. 

Siphonalia sp., cf. subnodosa (in 
bad condition). 
-^Siphonium planatum Sut. 

Struthiolaria cincta Hutt. 

Subemarg inula data Sut. 

Surcula fusijormis (Hutt.). 

* Marshall's N. hartvigiana is no doubt this. 


-Lima bullata (Born). 

Lima colorata Hutt. 
-Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 

Limopsis zitfeli von Iher. 
-Loripes co-ncinna Hatt. 

Loripes laminata Hutt. 

Macrocallisfa assimilis (Hutt.). 
- Macrocallista miiUistriaia (Sow.). 
-Malletia ausfralis (Q. & 6.). 

Mangilia canaliculata Sut. 

Mangilia tenuilirata (?) Sut. 

Marginella harrisi Cossm. 
-Modiolus australis (Gray). 
-Monodonta coracina (Trosch.). 

^Tellina glabrella Desh. 

Terebra orycta Sut. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 
^TurboniUa zealandica (Hutt.). 

Turritella concava Hutt. 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. 
(= murrayana of hand-list), 
-f Venericardia purpurata (Desh). 

— Venericardia dijfficiUs (Desh.). 
Venericardia pseutes Sut. 

■^Venericardia lutea (Hutt.) {= ze- 
landica of hand-list). 

— Siliquaria weldvi Ten. -Woods (new 

as fossil). 

Of the seventy-two species enumerated above, twenty-nine (or 40-3 per cent.) 
are still living. It is not a little curious that some living forms are present, in the^e 
glauconitic beds that have not been found in the overlying Awamoan shell-bed. 

The brachiopods found in this bed (c) were Hemithyris niyricans (Sow.), Pachy- 
magas parki (Hutt.), and Pachymagas Irelis sicken sis Thomson. 

From the glauconitic sandy beds lying immediately below the Ardgowan shell-bed 
were collected — 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. 
(= murrayana of hand-list). 

CalyptrcBa alta (Hutt.). 
— Malletia attstralis (Q. & G.). 

Limopsis catenata Sut. 
-^Modiolus australis (Gray). 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 

-=rLima suteri Dall. 
■^Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad. 
^ Venericardia lutea (Hutt.) 
landica oj hand-list). 

Venericardia pseutes Sut. 
— Zenalia acinaces (Q. & G.). 

Cytherea chariessa'^nt. 


The Ardgowan shell-bed crops out on the terrace-face on the east side of Oamaru 
Creek, about three-quarters of a mile past the Ardgowan Creamery. It can be seen 
from the Devil's Bridge Road. 

Shell Bed. rs 8' 

, : e 
OamariL Ch 70 


Fig. 36. — Section at Ardgowan Shell-bed. 

a. Soft dark-green glauconitic sands, 4 ft. showing. d. Shell- bed (Awamoan). 

6. Unknown. e. High-level Pleistocene gravels. 

c. Soft brown sandstone, in places slightly glauconitic ; fossiliferous. 

The fossil moUuscs eimmerated above were collected from a point a few yards north 
of the rock shelter formed by the overhanging shell-bed, and 6 ft. below the bottom 
of that bed. 

6 — Oamaru. 


The molluscs collected from the glauconitic sandstone at Devil's Bridge (bed d. 
Fig. 24) have already been recorded (page 62) in Chapter VI, but are recapitulated 
here for purposes of reference, as follows : — 

— Ampullina uiidulata (?) Hutt. 
Astarte australis Hutt. 

— Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & G.). 
Chione meridio)ialis (Sow.). 

— Grassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 
Cucullcea alia (?) Sow. (fragment). 
Emarginula waruwnensis Harris. 
Lima colorata Hutt 

Lima paleata Hutt. 

Pecten beethami Hutt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 

Pecten yahliensis Ten. -Woods. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Turritella concava Hutt. (two 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. 
-^Venerieardia purpurata (Desh.). 
Venericardia pseutes Sut. 

Upper Target Gulhj Sections. 

The Hutchinson Quarry beds crop out at many places on the pipe-line track on 
the east side of Target Gully, and at several places on the opposite side of the gully. 
The section at a point three-quarters of a mile above the Town Belt, and on the 
same side as the Target Gully shell-bed, is shown in Fig. 37. 

Tvpe-lvne Trcuzh 

Tcurget Creeh !(7 


Fig. 37. — Sectiox ox East Side of Target Gully, Thkee- quarters of a Mile above Towx Belt. 

a. Basalt. d. Rusty-brown glauconitic .sandstone ; ft. ex- 

b. Olive-green tuffs, \vith thin lenses of hard lime- posed ; contains Pachijinarjas parki (Hutt.), 

stone in upper portion. Pecteji huttoni (Park), and Pecten beethami 

c. Hard semi-crystalline limestone, 10 ft. to 17 ft. Hutt. 

thick. e. High -level, gravels. 

The basaltic conglomerate which is present between the limestone and greensands 
at Hutchinson's Quarry is absent in the upper end of Target Gully. The section 
exposed in Target Gully a mile above the Town Belt is shown in Fig. 38. 

Fig. 38. — Section across Target Gctlly One Mile above Town Belt. 

a. Ohve-green tuSs ^^ith limestone bands. b. Impure tufaceous limestone, 2 ft. to 4 ft. 

c. Glauconitic sandstone, 8 ft. exposed ; where oxidized, soft and fiiable ; forms a continuous outcrop 

90 yards long; fossiliferous ; crowded with Pachymagaa parki (Kutt.). 

d. Unknown. e. Fine beach sand. /. High-level gravel. 


Section a Mile and a Half South of Dinitroon. 

From Duntroon southward the Waitaki stone forms a steep escarpment that extends 
nearly to Borton's, a distance of over two miles. The section exposed in the cliff-face 
two miles from Duntroon is shown in Fig. 39. 


Fig. 39. — Section Two Miles 

a. Unknown ; covered by talus. d. 

b. Soft greyish- l)lup glauconitic sandstone ; does 

not contain fossils where examined, except 
fucoid stems ; thickness exposed, IH ft. 
r. Dark-green glauconitic sandstone, which l)ecomes 
friahie on exposuie to the weather ; thickness, 
'A ft. , crowded with fos.sils, mostly hrachio- 
pods, molluscs, and corals (Lower Hutchin- «. 

sonian). /. 

South ok Duntroon. 

Olauconitic sandstone interhcdded with numerous 
thin nodular layers of harder more calcareous 
sandstone that approach an impure lime- 
stone. The higher [)ortion is yellowish- brown, 
and consists of .softer inateiial with fewer 
calcareous layers ; thickness, 64 ft. showing 
(Upper Hutchinsonian). 

High- level Pleistocene gravels. 


Among the molluscs collected from the soft glauconitio sandstone (bed c) were, — 

Peeten huttoni (Park) (very abimd- Lima paleata Hutt. 
ant). Idina Icevigala Hutt. 

Peden beethami Hutt. -^Limopsis aurila (Brocchi). 

Brachiopods are very numerous 
collected : — 

Pachi/magas ellifticus Thom.son. 
Pachymafjas huttoni Thomson. 
^theia gauUeri (Morris). 
Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.). 

in this bed, and the following species were 

Neothyris sp. 

Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.). 
Terebratulina suessi (Hutt.). 
Liothyrella landonensis Thomson. 

At the base of the Waitaki stone (bed d) there occur many fine examples of the 
echinoderm Pericosmus compressus McCoy. 

Section at Otiake, Five Miles below Kurow. 

At this place the Waitaki stone is more arenaceous, and hence softer, than at most 
places ; and here Marshall and Uttley made a considerable collection of molluscs from it 
in 1914,* from a face some 50 ft. in height. The species they collected were, — 

Turritdla cavershamensis Harris. 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. 
-Struthiolaria vermis (Mart.). 

Crepidula gregaria Sow. 

Crepidula striata (Hutt.). 
-Calyptraa maculata (Q. & 6.). 
-Natica zelandica Q. & G. 

Terebra orycta Sut. 

Surcula n. sp. 

Surcula n. sp. 

Drillia callimorpha Sut. 

Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut. 

Eulhria sp. 

Borsonia rudis (Hutt.) 

• Trans. N.Z. Imt., vol. xlvii, 1915, p. 383. Mr. Uttley states (fide Dr. J. A. Thomson) that the 
beds from which the collection were made lie above the Waitaki stone, and are undoubtedly Awamoan. 

6* — Oamaru. 


Polinices hvMoni von Iher. 

Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.). 

Ampullina .suturalis (Hutt.). 

Sinum (Eunaticina) ainctum (Hutt.) 
{Polinices of hand-list), 
r Trichotropis clathrata Sow. 

Epitonium lyralum (Zitt.). 

Fusinus sp. 

Mitra n. sp. 

Siphonalia conoidea (Zitt.). 
-Siphonalia nodosa (Mart. . 

Cominella pulchra Sut. 
-Murex zelandicus Q. & G. 

Typhis maccoyi Ten. -Woods. 
-Fulgoraria gracilis (Swains.). 

Cymhiola corrugata (Hutt.). 

Atwilla hebera (Hutt.). 
-Ancilla )iovce-zelandice (Sow.). 
-Ancilla mucronata (Sow.). 

Marginella harrisi Cossm. 

Leucosyrinx alta (Harris).* 

Leucosyrinx alta transenna (Sut.).* 

Tunis uttleyi Sut. 

Exilia dalli Sut. 

Mavgilia lenuilirata Sut. 

Mangilia n. sp. 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. 

Dentalium mantelli Zitt. 

Cucull(Ba attenuata Hutt. 
^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 
-^Modiolus australis (Gray). 
-^Pecten zelandice Gray. 

Pecten hultoni (Park). 

Ldma colorata Hutt. 
^ Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 
^ Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 
-^ Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Ang. 
-=rZenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 
^Dosinia greyi Zitt. 
-^Cytherea oblonga (Hanley). 

Cytherea n. sp. 
^ Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.). 

Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.). 

Corbula canaliculata Hutt. 

Corbida humerosa Hutt. 

Corbula kaiparaensis Sut. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

This list contains sixty species, of which nineteen are Recent, a percentage of 31-7. 
Of the above sixty species, over 60 per cent, are found in the Awamoan shell-bed at 
Target Gully. 

Eight species have "not previously been recorded from any horizon 
Awamoan. They are, — 



Cominella pulchra Sut. 
Typhis maccoyi Ten. -Woods. 
-Fulgoraria gracilis (Swains.). 
Leucosyrinx alta (Harris). 

Leucosyrinx alta transenna (Sut. 
Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut. 
Borsonia rndis (Hutt.). 
Corbula kaiparaensis Sut. 

From the thin bed of glauconitic greensand at the base of the Waitaki stone 
Marshall and Uttley collected Isis dactyla Ten. -Woods. 

On the palseontological evidence the so-called Waitaki stone at Otiake should be 
referred to the Awamoan instead of the Upper Hutchinsonian. (See footnote on previous 

Section on Lejt Bank of Waitaki River, Wharekuri. 

At this place Marshall and Uttley in 1914 made a large collection of molluscs 
from the " marly greensands " overlying the lignitic measures, and underlying the 
Waitaki stone. Their collection comprised — 

Turritella ambulacrwin Sow. Borsonia cincta (Hutt.). 

-^Turritella pagoda Reeve. Borsonia rudis (Hutt.). 

-^Turritella symmetrica Hutt. Exilia dalli Sut. 

■^Turritella carlottce Watson. Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.). 

Struthiolaria cincta Hutt. Xenophora sp. 

* Turris of hand-list. 

Plate X. 

A. C. Gt/J(,rU, iihfitii.\ 

A. Hutciiixson's Oi,d Limkstoxk Qi-arhy, Kdex Sthekt, Oamahu. 



A. (J. GifJ<^ni^ photo. \ 

B. Hutchinson's Old Limestone Quaury, Eden Street, Oamaru. Olive-oreen 


Geol. Bull. Xo. 20. j 

[To face page 8Jf. 


-Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & 6.). 

Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.). 

Polinices huttoni von Iher. 

Folinices suturalis (Hutt.)- 

Sintim (Eunalicina) cinctum (Hutt.). 

Vymatium minimum (Hutt.). 

Epilonium lyratum (Zitt.). 

Epitonium n. sp. 

Niso n. sp. 

Fusinics sp. 
rSiphonalia nodosa (Mart.). 

Siphonalia excelsa Sut. 

Comindla exsculpta Sut. 

Cominella pulchra Sut. 

Alectrion socialis (Hutt.). 

Cymhiola corrugala (Hutt.). 
-Fulgoraria gracilis (Swains.). 

Ancilla papillala (Tate). 
-Ancilla novw-zelandioB (Sow.). 

Marginella harrisi Cossm, 

Turris uttleyi Sut. 

Drillia callimorpha Sut. 

Surcula /usiformis (Hutt.). 

Surcula hamiltoni (Hutt.). 

Bathytoma sulcata excavata Sut. 

Dentalium mantelli Zitt. 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. 

Leda semiteres Hutt. 
— Leda bellula A. Ad. 
-r- Mallei ia australis (Q. & G.) 

Anomia trigonopsis Hutt. 
^Anomia walteri Hect. 

Glycymeris cordatu (Hutt.). 

Cucullcea attenuala Hutt. 
-^Limx>psis aurita (Brocchi). 

Limopsis zitteli von Iher. 

Pecten chathamensis Hutt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 
-^Oslrea tatei Sut. 
^Crassatelliles obesus (A. Ad.). 

Venericardia pseutes Sut. 

Loripes laminata Hutt. 
-^Dosinia greyi Zitt. 
-^ Macrocallisla muUistriala (Sow.). 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Cardium patulum Hutt. 
-^Psammobia lineolala Gray. 

Carbula humerosa Hutt. 

Corbula canaliculata Hutt. 

Teredo lieaphyi Zitt. 

Sixteen species in tliis list of si.\ty are Recent, a percentage of 26'7. The most 
abundant of these fossils are Polinices huttoni, Cucuilcea attenuala, Venericardia pseutes, 
Crassatelliles obesus, and, amongst the smaller shells, Limopsis zitteli. 

The only other list of species of iVloIlusca from this locality is that given by the 

* Trans, N.Z. ItuL, vol. xxxvii, 1905, p. 525. 




Character of Rocks, and Distribution 

Fauna of Awamoan 

Section at All Day Bay 
Beds at Beach near Three Roads 
Beds at Mouth of Awamoa Creek 
Beds at Rifle Butts, South of Cape 
Wanbrow . . . . . . 89 

Page I I'aae 

Fauna of Awamoan — cvntinued, 
86 I Ardgowan Shell- bed 

86 ! Parsons Creek Beds 

87 t Pukeuri Beds 
Target Gully Shell- bed, 0am 



Character of Rocks, and Distribution. 

The Awamoan rocks are strongly developed at All Day Bay (where they follow the 
Hutchinsoniau conformably), in the Awamoa syncline, and at Pukeuri in the lower 
Waitaki. At the Rifle Butts they are conformable to the Hutchinsoniau ; but elsewhere 
iu the Awamoa syncline their relationship to the underlying rocks cannot be seen, 
on account of the covering of Pleistocene silts and high-level gravels. 

At the typical locality at the mouth of Awamoa Creek the rock - outcrops are 
now completely hidden by the recent accumulation of beach-sand and gravel. In 
1905, when the author examined this place, the area of rock exposed between high- 
and low- water mark was about 4 square yards. In the early " seventies " the bare 
rock-platform was several acres in extent. 

In the upper portion of Parson's Creek drainage-system there is a considerable 
area occupied by Awamoan strata. Here they lie in the middle of the Awamoa 

The small area of Awamoan rocks at Pulceuri is isolated from all other rock- 
outcrops, but the palseontological evidence is so clear as to leave no room for doubt 
as to the stratigraphical position of the beds at that place. 

Generally the Awamoan strata consist of blue or bluish-green marine sandy clavs 
that in some places pass into bluish-green sea-muds, in other places into very soft 
sandstones. In most places they are interbedded at distant intervals with hard 
calcareous bands that are sometimes sandy, in others argillaceous and crowded with 
shells. In some places the hard bands are replaced by calcareous nodular concre- 
tionary masses and flaggy lenses, occurring n more or less well-defined horizons. 

Fauna of Awamoan. 

The molluscan fauna is rich and varied, comprising 289 species or more, of which 
ninety -five (or 32-9 per cent.) are living forms. The high proportion of living species 
would place the Awamoan at the summit of the Miocene. 

The majority of the molluscs are littoral, and indicate conditions of deposition within 
the 10-fathom line. 

Section at All Bay Bay. 

The stratigraphical relationship of the Awamoan to the Hutchinsonian is shown 
in Fig. 18 (page 56). 


From the Awamoan beds at this place Marshall and Uttley* record the following 
molluscs : — 

Turritella cavershamensis Harris. 

Polinices gihhosus (Hutt.). 

Cymatium n. sp. 
-Phalium achatinum pyrum (Laiiik.) 

Epitomum lyratum (Zitt.). 

Tiirbonilla oarnarutica Sut. 

Mitra n. sp. 

Vexillum apical e (Hutt.). 

Typhis maccoyi Ten. -Woods. 
-Murex octogonus Q. & G. 

Cymhiola corrugata (Hutt.). 
-Ancilla novcB-zealandifc (Sow.). 

Aticilla n. sp. 

Marginella conica Harris. 

Marginella harrisi Cossm. 

Leucosyrinx alta (Harris). f 

Borsonia rudis (Hutt.). 

Dentalium mantelli Hutt. 
-^ Placunanomia zelandica (Gray) 

Limopsis zitelli von Iher. 
^Nucula hartvigiana Pfr. 

Pecfen huttoni (Park). 

Lima colorata Hutt. 
— Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 
~ Venericardia purpurata (Desh.). 

Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.). 

Corbula pumila Hutt. 

Of the twenty-seven species enumerated above, seven (or 26 per cent.) are still 
living. Further collecting at this place will i)robably increase rather than decrease 
the proportion of Recent species. In any case, it is always unsafe to generalize as to 
age on the proportion of living forms in collections in which the total number of 
species is small. 

Beds at Beach near Three Roads. 

Overlying the grecnsands at this place there occurs an outcrop of blue sandy 
clays containing flat, thin, flaggy lenses of hard shelly rock. The actual junction 
between the Awamoan and Hutchinsonian is hidden by slope deposits. From the 
flaggy lenses in the Awamoan the author collected the following species : — 

Turritella semiconcava Sut.(niurrayana Modiolaria elongata (Hutt.). 

of hand-list). 

Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.). 

Surcula fiisijormis (Hutt.). 
— Malletia australis (Q. & G.). 

Area suhvelata Sut. 

Cucullcm alta Sow. 
^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 

Limopsis catenata Sut. 

Mytilus huttoni Cossm. (striatus of 

Oslrea wuellerstorfi (?) Zitt. 
^Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 

Crassatellites attenuatus (?) (Hutt.). 
-^Tellina glabrella Desh. (plentiful). 
-^Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.) (plenti- 

Paphia curia (Hutt.). 

Cardium spatiosum (?) Hutfc. 

Beds at Mouth of Awamoa Creek. 

At this place the Awamoa beds form a fiat shelving platform extending from 

high-water mark seaward. They occur about the middle of the Awamoa syncline, 

but are isolated from all other rocks of Oamaruian age. Collections were made from 

this place by Traill in 1869, by McKay in 1876, by the author in 1904, and by 

* Trans. X.Z. Inst., vol. xlvii, 1915, p. 384. 

t Tiirris altun of hand-list. 


Marshall and Uttley in 1912. The collections made by McKay in 1876 (locality No. 170) 
and by Marshall and Uttley in 1912, contained the following species :— 

^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 

Alectrion socialis (Hutt.). 
Ampullina mioccenica Sut. 
■i- AmpulUna undulata (Hutt.). 
Ampidlina drewi (Murdoch). 
Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.). 
-^Aricilla novce-zealandice (Sow.). 

Ancilla papillata (Tate). 
■^Anamia wcdieri Hect. 
-^Anomia huttoni Sut. 
-^Arca novce-zealandicB Smith. 

Area suhvdaia Sut. 
■^CalyptrcBa maculata (Q. & G.). 
■^CalyptrcBa alta (Hutt.). 
Oerithidea n. sp. 
Chione chiloensis trmwata Sut. 
Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 
Chione speighti Sut. 
-i-Cominella huttoni Kobelt. 
Corhula humerosa Hutt. 
Corbula kaiparaensis Sut. 
-rCrassatellites obesua (A. Ad.). 

Crassatellites attenuatus (Hutt.). 
■i-Crepidulu monoxylu (Less.). 
Crepidula costata (Sow.). 
Crepidula gregaria Sow. 
CiMiullcea alta Sow. 
Cu£uUcBu alta var. B. 
CvoullcBa australis (Hutt.). 
Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.). 
Cymatium minimum (Hutt.). 
Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.). 
Cyproea u. sp. 
Daphnella u. sp. 
Dentalium mantelli Zitt. 
Detitalium solidum Hutt. 
-^Dosinia greyi Zitt. 

Drillia huchanani (Hutt.). 
-i- Emarginula striatula Q. & G. 

Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.). 
■^Fusinus spiralis (A. Ad.). 
Galeodea muricata (Hutt.) 
Glycymeris globosa (Hutt.). 
Hemiconus omatus (Hutt.). 
Lima colorata Hutt. 

^ Macrocallista muUistriala (Sow.). 
Macrocallisla ussimilis (Hutt.). 
Mactra chrydwa Sut. 
-^MaUetia australis (Q. & G.). 
Mangilia canaliculata Sut. 
Marginella conica Harris. 
Marginella harrisi Cossm. 
-^Modiolus australis (Gray). 
— Murex octogorms (Q. & G.). 

Mytilus hultoni Cossm. 
-^Natica zelandica Q. & G. 
-^Nucula hartvigiana Pfr. 

Osttea sp. 
-^Panope zelandica Q. & G. 
Fecten huitoni (Park). 
Plmlium achatinum pyrum (Lamk.). 
Flacunanomia incisura Hutt. 
Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.). 
Folinices ovatus (Hutt.). 
^Psammobia lineolata Gray. 
Serpulorhis sipho (Lamk.). 
Siphonalia mandarina (Duclos). 
Siphonalia dilatata (Q. & G.). 
tSiphonalia costata (Hutt.). 
Solariella stoliczkai (Zitt.). 
Struthiolaria cincta Hutt. 
Surcula fusiform is (Hutt.). 
^Terebra tristis Desh. 
H- Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. 
Leucosyrinx alta (Harris). 
^Turritella rosea Q. & G. 
-^Turritella carlottce Wats. 
Turritella concava Hutt. 
Turritella semiconcava Sut 
-^ Turritella symmetrica Hutt. 
Turritella cavershamensis Harris. 
Typhis maccoyi Ten. -Woods. 
Venericardia pseutes Sut.. 
-4- Venericardia purpurata (Desh.). 
Venericardia cf. inoequalis Phil. 
Vexillum linctum (Hutt.). 
—Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 

Of the above eighty-seven species, thirty-two (or 36-8 per cent.) are still living. 


Beds at Rifle Butts, South of Cape Wanbroiv. 

At this place the Awamoan beds follow the Hutchinsonian conformably (Plate IV). 
Collections were made here by Marshall and Uttley* in 1914, and by the author in 
1916. The collection made by the author comprised the following species : — 

Alectrion socialis (Hutt.). 
-^Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & G.). 
Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

— Chione mesodesma (Q. & G.), 
Crassatellites attenuaius (Hutt.). 
Cucullrea alt a Sow. 
Cuculhea australis (Hutt.). 
Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.). 
Deritalium solidum Hutt. 

■^Dosinia f/rei/i Zitt. 
Drillia awamoaemis (Hutt.). 
Drillia costifer Sut. 

— Fulgoraria arabica (Mart.). 
Lima colorata Hutt. 
Loripes laminata Hutt. 
Macrocallista pareoraen-si.s Sut. 

^Malletia australis (Q. & G.). 

Marginella conica Harris. 

Margiiiella harrisi Cossm. 
^Natica zelaudica Q. & G. 

— Ostrea angasi Sow. 
Pecten hiUchinsoni Hutt. 

The collection made by Marshall 
by the author, — ■ 

Turritella patat/onica Sow. 
Turritella coticava Hutt. 
Turritella n. sp. 
Crepidula qregaria Sow. 
Ampulliiui suluralis (Hutt.). 
^Polinices amphialus (Wats.). 
Turbonilla oamanUiea Sut. 

— Phalium achatinum pijrnm (Lamk, 
Siphonalia turrita Sut. 

-^Ancilla novcB-zealandicB (Sow.). 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 

Pecten semiplicatus Hutt. 

Pecten ijahliensis Ten. -Woods. 

Phos cingulatus (?) (Hutt.). 

Pinna dislans Hutt. 
^ Placunanomia zelandica (Gray). 

Poli)iices gibbosus (Hutt.). 

Siphonalia conoidea Zitt. 

Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.). 

Surcula huttoni Sut. 
^Tellina glabrella Desh. 

Leucosyrinx alta (Harris). 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. 
~ Venericardia purpurata (Desh.). 

Venericardia pseutes Sut. 

VexiUuni apicale (Hutt.). 

Vexillum linctum (Hutt.). 
— Zenatia acinaces (Q. &. G.). 

Alcira n. ap. (the same as that 
from Pukeuri). 

Erycina n. sp. 

and Uttley contains twenty species not found 

^Marginella pygmrca Sow. 
-Bathytoma albula (Hutt.). 

Borsonia rudis (Hutt.). 
^Mangilia protensa (Hutt.). 

Mangilia leptosoma (Hutt.). 

CucullcBa attenuata Hutt. 

Pecten scandula Hutt. 
). -I- Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 
^Cytherea oblonga (Hanley). 

Corbula caniculata Hutt. 

Turritella stu.rtii Tate, of Marshall and Uttley's collection, is almost certainly 
T. semiconcava Sut. 

Of sixty-two species contained in the united lists, nineteen (or 30-6 per cent.) 
are Recent. 

Ardgowan Shell-bed. 
Collections were made at this place by T. Esdaile in 1886, by Marshall and 
Uttley in 1912, and by the author in 1916. Esdaile's collection is in the Geological 

* Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlvii, 1915, p. 384. 


Survey collections stored in the Dominion ^Museum, 
in 1916 contains sixty-nine species, as follows : — 

The collection made bv the author 

Basilissa n. sp. 
Basilissa n. sp. 
-^Serpulorbis sipho (Lamk.). 

— Siphonium planatum Sut. 
Turritella caver shamennis Harris. 
Turritella semieoncava Sut. 
Struthiolana cincta Hutt. 

■^Calj/ptrcea alta (Hutt.). 
Calyptrcea maccoyi Sut. 
Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & 6.). 
Calyptrcea maculata inflata (Hutt.). 
CalyptrcBa tenuis (Gray) (= scutum 
Less, of hand-list). 
■^Crepidula monoxyla (Less.) (= crepi- 
dula (L.) of hand-list). 

— Natica zehimlica (Q. & G.). 
^Polinices amphialus (Wats.). 

Polinices gihhosus (Hutt.). 
^Phalium achatinum pyrum (Lamk.). 
Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.). 
Fusinus climMcotus Sut. 
Vexillum rutidolomum Sut. 
Cominella pulchra Sut. 
Alectrion socialis (Hutt.). 
Trophon lepidus Sut 
^Merica (Aphera) n. sp. 

— Fulgoraria arabica (Mart.). 
Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.). 
Ancilla papillata (Tate). 
Marginella conica Harris. 
Marginella harrisi Cossm. 
Drillia awamoaensis (Hutt.). 
Drillia callimorpha Sut. 
Drillia n. sp. 

Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.). 
Surcula huttoni (?) Sut. 

Surcula oamarutica Sut. 

Bathytoma sulcata (Hutt.). 

Mangilia canaliculala Sut 

Hemiconus ornatus (Hutt). 
-;- Volvulella reflexa (Hutt.). 

Dentalium mantelli Zitt. 
— Dentalium nanum Hutt. 

Nucula sagittata Sut. 
^Leda beUula A. Ad. * 
-Malletia australis (Q. & G.). 
^Anomia walteri Hect. 

Placunanomia incisura Hutt. 

CucidlcFa alta Sow. 

Cucullcea australis (Hutt.). 
^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 

Limopsis catetiata Sut. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 

Lima color ata Hutt. 

Crassatellites am plus (Zitt.). 
^ Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 
^ Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 

Venericardia pseutes Sut. * 

-^ Venericardia luteaHntt. (= zelandica 
(Desh.) of hand-list). 

Loripes lamincUa Hutt. 
^ Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 

Dosinia mftgna Hutt. 

Cytherea sulcata (0 (Hutt.). 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Paphia curta (Hutt.). 
^Psammobia stangeri Gray. 

Corbula canaliculata Hutt. 

Corbula humerosa Hutt. 

Corbula kaiparaensis Sut. 

Pattope worthingtoni Hutt. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

The additional species contained in the collection made by Marshall and Uttley 

-^Trochu^s tiaratus Q. & G. 
^Turritella rosea Q. & G. 

Struthiolaria tuber culaia Hutt. 

Crepidnla costata (Sow.). 
^Natica zelandica Q. & G. 

Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.). 

Cymatium cfr. minimum (Hutt.). 

Leucosyrinx alta (Harris). 

Vexillum enysi (Hutt.). 

Ancilla papillata (Tate). 
-^Ancilla novce-zealandice (Sow.). 
-^Mangilia sinclairi (E. A. Smith). 
^Cylichnella striata (Hutt.). 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. 
^Nucula hartmgiana Pfr. 

Glycymeris globosa (Hutt.). 

■ Also from Target Gully she 

-r-Fusimis spiralis (A. Ad.). 

Latirus brevirostris (Hutt.). 
^Siphonalia dilatata (Q. & G.). 
^Murex octogonus Q. & G. 
-^Terebra trisiis Desh. 

Typhis maccoyi Ten. -Woods. 
-^Trophon hanleyi (Angas). 
-^ Fulgoraria gracilis (Swains.). 
The united lists contain 101 species, 


— Pecten zelandice Gray. 

Crassatellites attenuatus (Hutt.). 
^ Venericardia purpurata (Desh.). 
-^Diplodonta globularis (Lamk.). 

Limopsis zitteli von Iher. 

Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.). 

Corbula pumila Hutt. 

Panope orbita Hutt. 
of which thirty-eight (or 37-6 per cent. 


Parson s Creek Beds. 

These beds consist of bluish-green sandy clays. They are well exposed in the 
bed and banks of Parson's Creek, close to the old Ardgowan homestead. The molluscs 
collected here were, — 

^Ancilla novcB-zelandim (Sow.). 

Ancilla papillala (Tate). 

Balfiyloma sulcata excavafa Sut. 
-^Calyptrcea macidata (Q. & G.). 
-^Calyptrcea maculalu inflata (Hutt.). 
-^Calyptrrea tenuis Gray. 
^Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 

Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.). 
— Dentalium ecustatuin T. W. Kirk. 

Dentalium mantelli Zitt. 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. 
-7- Diplodonia globularis (Lamk.). 

Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.). 

Galeodea senex (Hutt.). 

Litna coloratu Hutt. 
-^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 

Limopsis catenata Sut. 

^ Macrocallista multistriata (Sow.). 
~ Mallet ia australis (Q. & G.). 

Marginella harrisi Cossm. 
~ Natica zelandica Q. & G. 

Nucula sagittata Sut. 

Pecten huttoni (Park.). 

Sinum (Eunaticina) cinctum (Hutt.) 
(= PoHnices ductus of 
^Sarepta obolella (Tate). 
-^Siphonalia nodosa (Mart.). 

Surcula Jusiformis (Hutt.). 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Leucosyrinx cdla (Harris). 

Turritella semiconcaca Sut. 
-H Venericardia difficilis (Uesh.). 

Venericardia pseutes Sut. 
-^Zenatia acinaces "(Q. & G.). 

(Jf this small collection of thirty-three species, fifteen (or 45-5 per cent.) are Recent. 

Note by Mr H. Suter on Sarepta obolella (Tate). 

•■ Sarepta obolella (Tate) is new to New Zealand fauna. It is represented by one 
right valve only. 

" 1886. Leda ohiAeUn 'I'atc : Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aiuttr., vol. viii, p. 129, pi. v, figs, '.ia, 'Ab. 

• IS!)7. Xuculniia olmlellit Tate (sp. ) : Harris, Cat. Terl. Molt. Brit. Mas., pt. i, p. 352. 

■ 1001. Sarepta f^J lellinafonnis Hcdiey : Rw. Auitr.. Mu.i., vol. iv, No. 1, p. 26, fig. 8 in text. 
'" 1002. Sarepta obolella Tate sp. : Hedley, Mem. Austr. Mus., vol. iv, pt. .5, p. 29;'). 
■' 1907. Sarepta nholella Tate : Verco, Trann. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. -xxxi, p. 218. 

" Fossil : Oligocene of Muddy Creek, Victoria. Type locality, Miocene of Parson's 
Creek, Oaniaru, New Zealand. 

'■ Recent : 41 to 75 fathoms, off the coast of New South Wales ; 300 fathoms 
off Cape Jaffa, South Australia (Dr. Verco). 

" Remark : The New Zealand valve is ovato-trigonal, and very likely stronger 
concentrically striated. 

" Length, 6-7 mm. ; height, 4-7 mm. ; diameter, 1-5 ram. 

" It is evidently not adult. Hedley remarks that the different .stages of growth 
differ in the proportions of length to depth and height ; adult specimens also vary in 


Pukeuri Beds. 

ill the deep road-cutting near the railway-station there is a good exposure of 
\('llowish-br()wn sandy strata, sufficiently compacted to constitute a soft sandstone. 
The constitutent sand is very fine, and in places slightly glauconitic. The strike of 
the beds is north-east and south-west, and the dip south-east at angles varying from 
8° to 12°. The cutting is 150 yards long, and it runs almost at right angles to the 
strike. The total thickness of strata exposed is 104 ft. 

About the middle of the strata, in a well-defined horizon, there occur a few 
spheroidal concretions of hard calcareous sandstone, varying from 9 in. to 2 ft. in 
diameter. Some 20 ft. lower there is a horizon containing tabular and irregular-shaped 
masses of the same concretionary material, ranging up to 6 ft. in diameter. Most 
of the fossils occur in a band 6 in. thick, about 14 ft. below the summit of the series as 
exposed in the cutting, though a good many are present in the upper 25 ft. Below 
that, fossils are .scarce and widely scattered, and comprise only a few genera, among 
which Turritella, Hemiconus, Marginella, and Venericardia are the most common. 

----- 760 ycxrds 

a. Fo.ssiliferous band. 

Fig. 40. — Sectiok in Road-cutting, Pukevri. 
b. Hard calcareous sandstone layer. c. Hard concretionary masses. 

Collections were made at this place by the author* in 1904, Marshall and Uttleyf 
in 1912, and by the author in 1916 during the progress of the present survey. 

The Pukeuri beds form an isolated outcrop about a mile distant from the nearest 
occurrence of any member of the Oamaruian. The palseontological evidence shows that 
Marshall and Uttley were right in referrmg these beds to the Awamoan. 

The molluscs collected by the author in 1916 were, — 

Alectrion socialis (Hutt.). 
Ampullina suturalis (Hutt.). 

— Ancilla novcB-zelandicB (Sow.). 
Ancilla papillata (Tate). 

— Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & G.). 
■^Calyptrcea maculata inflata (Hutt.). 

XCominella pulchra Sut. 

Corbula pumila Hutt. 
^ Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 

Crepidula gregaria Sow. 

Cucullcea alta Sow. 

Cylichndla enysi (Hutt.). 

Cymatium minimum (Hutt.). 

Cymhiola corrugata (Hutt.). 

Dentalium mxintelli Zitt. 
-^Dentalium nanum Hutt. 

Dentalium pareorensis P. & S. 

Drillia awamoaensis Hutt. 
-^Fulgoraria arabica (Mart.). 

Fusinus spiralis dentattis (Hutt.). 

Galeodea senex (Hutt.). 
^Hemiconus ornatus (Hutt.). 

Lima color ata Hutt. 
WIAma huttoni Sut. var. nov. 
-^Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 
-^Malletia australis (Q. & G.). 

Mangilia canaliculata Sut. 

Marginella conica Harris. 

Marginella fraudulenta Sut. 

Marginella harrisi Cossm. 
-^Myodora crassa (Stutchb.) (new as 

* Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol. xxxvii, 1905, pp. 518-519. f Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlv. 1913, p. 303. 

J No doubt C. huttoni of Marshall's list. 

§ Conus ornatus Hutt. and Conus trailH Hutt. are undoubtedly identical ; Hemiconus ornatus has priority. 
II Flat ribs, linear interstices. 


-^Myodora pandoriformis (Stutchb.) Leucosyrinx alia (Harris). 

(new as fossil). Turritella concava Hutt. 

^Natica zelandica Q. k G. Turritella semiconcava Sut. 

Pecten hochstetteri Zitt. ^Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 

-^ Placunanomia zelandica (Gray). ■fVenericardia pseutes Sut. 
*Polinices gibhosus (Hutt.). Vexillum apicale (Hutt.). 

— Protocardia pulchella (Gray). Vexillum, fenestratum Sut. 
Siphonalia excelsa Sut. Vexillum linctum (Hutt.). 
Siphonalia turrita Sut. -^Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 
Htruthiolaria tuberculata Hutt. Alcira n. sp. ; the same from Rifle 
Surcula fusiformis (Hutt.). Butts. 

Surcula pareoraensis (Sut.). 

In addition to the fifty-two species contained in the above list, eleven species not 
found by the author were collected by Marshall and Uttley, — 

— Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. ^Nucula hartvigiana Pfr. 

-^ Turritella rosea Q. & G. Placunanomia incisura Hutt. 

H- Turritella carlottfr Watson. Pecten fischeri Zitt. 

— Siphonalia dilatuta (Q. & G.). Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.). 
^Ciflichnella striata (Hutt.). Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 

Dentaliimi solidum Hutt. (= D. opacum of Marshall and Uttley's list). 

Of the sixty-three sf)ecies contained in the united lists, twenty-one species (or 
33-3 per cent.) are Recent. 

Target Gully Shell-bed, Oamaru. 

This bed crops out on the Town Belt reserve. The exposure is only a few yards 
long, and the thickness of the deposit as shown by excavations made by the author 
is 6 ft. (Plate X.) 

The material consists mainly of shells mixed with sand. There is a little glauconite 
present, doubtless derived from the underlying greensands. Most of the shells are 
broken, and many of them are water-worn. The deposit lies against a low cliff eroded 
in the underlying calcareous sandstone that closes the Hutchinsonian (Fig. 35). Rolled 
water-worn fragments of Pachymagas parki (Hutton) that occur in the shell-bed were 
probably derived from the eroded greensands lying below. It is not improbable that 
some of the molluscs were derived from the same source. 

This shell-bed is one of the richest fossil localities in New Zealand. Of the great 
assemblage of molluscs found in it, some are forms usually found in 200 fathoms of 
water, while many are littoral shells. The great mixture of shells and the character 
of the deposit would tend to show that it was formed as a shell-bank in comparatively 
shallow water. Besides molluscs and brachiopods there are present fish-teeth, crab- 
remains, echinoderm plates and spines, corals, polyzoans, and Foraminifera. 

Marshall and Uttley were the first to collect molluscs here. In 1912, J 1913,§ and 
191411 they made many fine collections. Altogether they collected about 160 species.^ 
The collection made by the author in 1916 added another fifty species or more, of 
which twenty-two are new species. Some of the others are new as fossils, some are 
new to the Miocene, and some are new to the New Zealand fauna. 

* P. ovatus in Marshall's list (?). § Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlvi, 1914, pp. 279-280. 

t V. auslralis in Marshall's list (?). || Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlvii, 1915, pp. 378-38 

t Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlv, 1913, pp. 301-303. V I^c. cit., p. 879. 


The united lists contain 212 species, of which seventy-one species (or 33-5 per 
cent.) are Recent. This is the largest number of molluscs hitherto obtained from 
any fossiliferous horizon in New Zealand. It is almost certain that further excavation 
will bring to light many species not contained in the following list : — 



^ScJiismope atkinsoni (Ten. -Woods). 
-^ Emarginula striatula Q. & G. 
■^ Subemarginula intermedia (Reeve). 
-^Trochus cfutthamensis (Hutt.). 
-^Trochus tiaratus Q. & G. 
-^Monodonta coracina (Troschel). 
^Cantharidus tenebrosus A. Ad. 

Calliostoma n. sp. 

Basilissa n. sp. 

Lissospira exigua Sut. 

Circulus helic'oides (Hutt.). -^- 

Circulus politus Sut. 
-^Leptothyra flv£tuata (Hutt.) 
-^*Rissoina emarginata (Hutt.). 

Rissoina n. sp. -H 

Besanconia (Ataxocerithium) n. sp. 

Besanconia (Ataxocerithium) n. sp. 
fSeila bulbosa Sut. 

Cerithiopsis cequicincta Sut. 

Cerithiella fidicula Sut. [Newtoni- 
-^"fTriphora lutea Sut. 

Vernicularia n. sp. 
^Serpulorbis sipho (Lamk.). 
—Siphonium planatum Sut. 
-^"fSiliquaria weldii Ten. -Woods. 
^Tumtella carlottcB Watson. 

Turritella concava Hutt. 

Turritella semiconcava Sut. 

Turritella patagonica Sow. 
-^Turritella rosea Q. & G. 

Mesalia striolata ( Hutt . ) . [Eglisia . ] 

Struthiolaria cincta Hutt. 

Struthiolaria tuberculata Hutt. 
■^Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & G.). 
■^Calyptrcea maculata injlata (Hutt.). 

CalyptrcBa maccoyi Sut. 
^Crepidula costata (Sow.). 
— Crepidula monoxyla (Less.). [C. 

Crepidula densistria Sut. 


Crepidula gregaria Sow. 

Crepidula striata (Hutt.). 
-Natica australis (Hutt.). 
'-Natica zelandica Q. & G. 

Polinices gibbosus (Hutt.). 

Sinum cinctum (Hutt.). [Polinices.] 

Sinum carinatum (Hutt. [Ampul- 

Ampullina (Megatylotus) suturalis 

^Trivia avellanoides (McCoy). 

Erato neozelanica Sut. 

CymMium minimum (Hutt.). 

Heliacus imperfectus Sut. 
"fHeliacus variegatus (Gmel.). 
"rAncilla australis (Sow.). 
^Ancilla nova:-zelandi(e (Sow.). [A. 

Ancilla hebera (Hutt.). 

Ancilla papillata (Tate). 

Marginella conica Harris. 

Marginella fraudulenta Sut. 

Marginella harrisi Cossm. 

Marginella (Glabella) n. sp. 

Turris regius Sut. (?) 

Leucosyrinx alta (Harris). [Turris.] 

Leucosyrinx alta transenna (Sut.). 

Drillia awamoaensis (Hutt.). 

Drillia callimorpha Sut. 

Drillia costifer Sut. 

Drillia imperfecta Sut. 

Drillia n. sp. 

Drillia n. sp. 

Surcida fusiformis (Hutt.). 

Surcula pareoraensis Sut. (?) 

Surcula n. sp. 
^Bathytoma albula (Hutt.). 

Bathytoma antecostata Sut. 

Bathytoma perlata Sut. 

Bathytoma sulcata (Hutt.). 

* No spiral stria. New for the Miocene, 
brackets refer to H. Suter's hand-list (1915). 

t New as a fossil. 1 This and other names added in 

§ New to New Zealand fauna. 



Mangilia canaliculata Sut. 
~*Mangilia dictyola (Hutt.). 

Mangilia gracilenta Sut. 

Mangilia infelix Sut. 

Mangilia leptosoma (Hutt.). 

Mangilia prcecophinoides Sut. 

Mangilia pukeuriensis Sut. 

Mangilia tenuilirata Sut. 

Borsonia rudis (Hutt.). [Mangilia.] 

Borsonia hrachyspira Sut. 

Hemiconus ornutus (Hutt.). [H. 

Terebra costata Hutt. 

Terebra orycta Sut. 

Ringicula uniplicata Hutt. 

Tornatina n. sp. 
-^Volvulella reflexa (Hutt.). 

CylichneUa enysi (Hutt.). 

Gylichnella soror Sut. 
^Dentalium ecostatum T. VV. Kirk. 

Dentalium nuinlelli Zitt. 
-^Dentalium nanum Hutt. 

Dentalium solidum Hutt. 
■^Nucula nitidula A. Ad. 

Nucula sagittata Sut. 

Leda semiteres Hutt. 
^Malletiu uustralis (Q. & G.). 
^Anomia huttoni Sut. 

Placunanomin incisnra Hutt. 
~ Placunanomia zelandica (Gray). 

Epitonium lyratum (Zitt.). [E. nuju- 
losuin lyratitm.] 
■^Epitonium zelebori (Dkr.). 

Eglisia n. sp. 

TurhoHilla (Pyrgiscus) oamarutica 

Turbonilla (Mormula) prisca Sut. 
^Turbonilla zealundica (Hutt.). 
■^ l-Odostomia padica Sut. 
^Odostomia fPyigulina) rugata Hutt. 

Odostomia n. s}). 

Odostomia n. sp. 
"fEulima obliqua (Hutt.). 
~ Megalatraclus maximus (Trvon). 

Fusinus climacotus Sut. 
-^Fusinus spiralis (A. Ad.). 

Fusinus n. sp. 

Latirun acuticingulatus Sut. 

Lafirus hrevirostris (Hutt.). 

Latirus compactuti Sut. 

Latirus elatior Sut. 

Latirus n. sp. 

Streptochetus n. sp. 

Mitra (Cancilla) armorica Sut. 

Vexillum fenestratmn Sut. 
-H Vexillum marginatum (Hutt.). 

Vexillum rutidolomum Sut. 
■^Siphonalia caudafa (Q. & G.). 

Siphonalia conoidea (Zitt.). 

Siphonalia costata (Hutt.). 
^Siphonalia dilatata (Q. & G.). 

Siphonalia excelsa Sut. 

Siphonalia nodosa zitteli Sut. 

Siphonalia n. sp. 

Eulhria stirophora Sut. 

Coininella intermedia Sut. 

Cominella ordinatis Hutt. 

Cominella pidchra Sut. 

Alectrion socialis (Hutt.). 
^Murex angasi (Crosse). 
-^Murex octogonus Q. & G. 
-^Trophon hanleyi (Angas). 

Trophon lepidus Sut. 

Trophon minutissimus Sut. 

Typhis maccoyi Ten.-Woods. 

Acteon prrpcursoria Sut. [Admete.] 

Sveltia n. sp. 

Merica n. sp. 

Merica n. sp. 

Merica n. sp. 

Merica (Aphera) n. sp. 
^Anachis pisaniopsis (Hutt.). 
^Fulgoraria arabica (Mart.). 
-^Fulgoraria arabica elongata (Swains.). 
-^ Fulgoraria gracilis (Swains.). 

Cymbiola corrugala (Hutt.). 
^Arca novoe-zealandicB Smith. [A. 

Area subvelata Sut. 

Glycymeris subglobosa Sut 

Cucullcea alia Sow. 

Cuculla;a australis (Hutt.). 

Limopsis catenata Sut. 

Limopsis zitteli Ihering. 

* Slender form . New for the Miocene. 

f New to the Miocene. 



Mytilus huttoni Cossm. [M. striatus.] 
-Modiolus australis (Gray). 

Pecten hurmtti Zitt. 

Pecten huttoni (Park). 
-Pecten radiatus Hutt. 

Hinnites trailli Hutt. 
-Lima hvllata (Born). 

Lima colorata Hutt. 
-Ostrea angasi Sow. 

Ostrea nelsoniana Zitt. 

Crassatellites amplus (Zitt.). 

Crassatellites attemiatus (Hutt.) 
-Crassatellites obesus (A. Ad.). 

Cuna n. sp. 
- Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 

Venericardia psevies Sut. 
-Venericardia lutea (Hutt.). [F. ze- 

Venericardia svhintermedia Sut. n. var. 
-Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Aug.). 
•Loripes concinna Hutt. 

Loripes laminata Hutt. 
-Diplodonta globularis (Lamk.). 
-Tellina glahrella Desh. 

^Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.). 
-^Dosinia greyi Zitt. 
Dosinia magna Hutt. 

— Macrocallista multistriata (Sow. 
-^Cytherea oblonga (Hanley). 
-^Cytherea suhsulcata (Sut.). 

Cytherea sulcata (Hutt.). 

Chione meridionalis (Sow.). 
-^Chione mesodesmu (Q. & G.) 
^Chione yatei (Gray). 

Paphia curta (Hutt.) 

Cardium patulum Hutt. 

Protocardia sera Hutt. 

Chama huttoni Hect. 

— Psammobia lineolata Gray. 
Corbula canaliculata Hutt. 
Corbula humerosa Hutt. 
Corbula kaiparaensis Sut. 
Corbula pumila Hutt. 
Barnea n. sp. 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

— My odor a subrostrata Smith. 

— Chamostrea albida (Lanik.). 

Plate XI 

A. C. GiOonl, photo J 

Tah(;et Gully Siiell-uki), Auamoax. 

Geol. Bull. No. 20. \ 

\To face jmkjc 90. 




OamaruJan MoUusca 
Summary of Molluscs 
Alphabetical List of Genera and Species 
Bortonian Molluscs 
Upper Waiarekan Mollu.scs . . 
Ototaran Molluscs 


Oamaruian Mollusca — rontin ite.d. 

Hutcliinsonian Molluscs 

Awamoan Molluscs 
Oamaruian Bracliiopods 
General Conclusions 



Oamaruian Mollusca. 
Summary oj Molluscs. 






of Recent 


Hutchinsonian . . 

Total Oamaniian Mollusca 













TT . 1 • (Upper or Waitakian 
Hiitchinsoman 1 t 

I Lower 

Waiarekan y "" ti V • 

1 Lower or Eoitoman . . 







Alphabetical List of Genera and Species in Oamaruian. 

The molluscs found in the marine members of the Oamaruian are shown in the following 
tabulated statement, arranged in alphabetical order : — 










Genus and Species. 

u e 


oS «; 

O cS 


S ^ 

uS ,1 





CLi CO o O O 



&^ II i & 



^ i-Jpq , ^ 





Acteon pra>cursonus Sut. 
Alcira n. sp. 
Alectrion socialis (Hutt.) 
Ampullina drewi (Murd.) 

mioccBnica Sut. 

— - — sutnralis (Hutt.) 
-■ — ■ — undulata (Hutt.) 
Amusium zilteli (Hutt.) 
7 — Oamaru. 


I ^ 

, XX 

, t . . X 

, I . . X 

X X X ! X 

, XX 

X I . . 


Alphabetical List of Genera and Species in Oatnaruian — continued. 

Caniis and Spet-ies. 



Hutchin- ' 



sonian 1 




t- c 

f <6 

o § 


a W 

t, n 

e- =* 

CO o 

© o 


p t: ft 

o o ft 


■5 ft 



^m : 3 


J . & 

Anachis pisaniopsis (Hutt.) 
-Aucilla australis (Sow.) 
australis pyramidalis (Reeve) 

heh&ra (Hutt.) 

mucronata (Sow.) 

-' Hov(B-zelandice Sow. 

papillata (Tate) 

waikopiroensis Sut. n. sp. 

n. sp. 

-Anomia huttoni Sut. 

■ — - — trigonopsis Hutt. 
-— — walteri Hect. 

-Area nov(B-zealandioe Smitli . . 

subvelata Sut. 

Astarte australis Hutt. 

-Astr'jea heliotropium (Mart.) 

Athleta necopinata Sut. 

Atrina distans (Hutt.) 

Aturia australis McCoy 

Bamea n. sp. 

Basilissa n. spp. (3) 
-Bathytoma alhula (Hutt.) 

antecostata Sut. 

■ — ■ — • perlata Sut. . . 

• — ■ — sulcata (Hutt.) 

sulcata excavata Sut. . . 

Bezanconia n. spp. (2) 
Borsonia cincta (Hutt.) 

rudis (Hutt.) 

— ■ — brachyspira Sut. 

-Calliostoma pellucidum (Val.) 

■ — ■ — n. sp. 

■ — - — n. sp. . 
rCalyptrcea alta (Hutt.) 

• ■ inflata Hutt. 

maccoyi Sut. 

■ tnaculata (Q. & G.) . . 

— — - maculata injiata (Hutt.) 

tenuis (G-ray) 

Cantharidus tenebrosus A. Ad. 
Capulus australis (Lamk.) . . 
■Cardita calyculata (L.) 
Cardium huttoni von Iher. . . 

patulum Hutt. 

■ — - — spatiosum Hutt. 

- waitakiense Sut. 

n. spp. (2) . . 

n. sp. 

Cerithidea n. sp. . . 
Cerithiella fidimOa. Sut. 
Cerithiopsis ceguicinda Sut. 













. . 1 








• • 1 
































Alphabetical List of Genera and Species in Oamaruian — continued. 

Genus and Species. 



o o 



ChauM hittoni Hect. 
■^Chamostrea albida (Lamk.) . . 
Chione chiloensis truncata Sut. 

meridionalis (Sow.) 

^- — ■ — mesodesma (Q. & G.) . . 

speighti Sut. . . 

-f- spissa Desh. . . 

-; yatei (Gray) . . 

Circidns helicoides (Hutt.) .. 

politiis Sut. . . 

Clavagella n. sp. (genus new to X.Z. fauna) 
Clio annnlata (Tate) (new to N.Z. fauna) 

. rangiana (Tate) 

C'ohibraria n. sp. (genu.'< new to N.Z.) 
Cominella exscnlpta Sut. 
-; hidtoni Kobelt 

interin,edia Sut. 

orditiatns Hutt. 

palchra Sut. . . 

Corbula canaliculata Hutt. . . 

humerosa Hutt. 

— ■ — kaiparaensis vSut. 

piimila Hutt. 

Crassatellites ampins (Zitt.) 

attennaUis (Hutt.) 

obesus (A. Ad.) 

-i-Crepidula costata (Sow.) 

densistria Sut. 

gregaria Sow. 

-. monoxyla (Less.) 

striata (Hutt.) 

CncullcBa alta Sow. 

aUa var. B. Hutt. 

attewtata Hutt. 

anstralis' (Hutt.) 

Cuna n. sp. 
Cnspidaria n. sp. . . 
Cylichnella enysi (Hutt.) 
— — soror Sut. 

-. striata (Hutt.) 

Cymatium minimum (Hutt.) 

n. sp. 

Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.) . . 
Cyprma ovdatella Tate 

trelissickensis Sut. 

n. sp. 

Cytherea chariessa Sut. 

-. oblonga (Hanley) 

H subsidcata (Sut.) 

■ — ■ — - sulcata (Hutt.) 

■ n. sp. 

7* — Oamaru. 


£< * 
ft. & 







Alphabet real List of Genera and Species in Oamaruian — continued. 

Gienus and Species. 



O o 




Daphnella n. sp. . . 
-Deidalium ccoslatum T. W. Kii'k 

■ — ■ — manteUi Zitt. 
nanum Hutt. 

— ■ — pareorense Pilsbry and Sharp 

— - — solidum Hutt. 
- — — zelandicum Sow. 

— ■ — n. sp. 

Diplodonia globularis (Lamk.) 

-■ — — zelandica (Gray) 

Divaricella cumingi (Ad. & Aug.) 

Dosinia ccerulea (Eeeve) 

greyi Zitt. 

magna Hutt. 

Drillia awamoaensis (Hutt.) 

buchanani (Hutt.) 

callimorpha Sut. 

costifer Sut. . . 

imperfecta Sut. 

n. spp. (3) . . 

-Emarginnla striatala Q. & 6 

wannonensis Harris 

Epitonvim lyratum, (Zitt.) . 

nytnpha (Hutt.) 

: — - — zelebori (Dkr.) 

n. sp. 

n. sp. 

— — n. sp. 

Erato neozelanica Sut. 
Erycina n. sp. 
Evliina obliqua (Hutt.) 
Euthria media (Hutt.) 
• — ■ — stirophora Sut. 

- sp. . . 

EuthriofnsHs spinosus Sut. 
Exilia crassicostata Sut. 

dalli Sut. 

Ficiis transennns Sut. 

-Fiilgoraria arahica (Mart.) 
: arahica elongata (Swains 

arabica txrrita Sut. 

: gracilis (Swains.) 

Fusinus clinuicotus Sut. 

solidus Sufc. . . 

spiralis (A. Ad.) 

spiralis deritatus (Hutt. 

- n. spp. (3) . . 
■ — — n. sp. 
— - sp. . . 

-Gadinia conica Angas 
Galeodea muricata (Hect.) 


Alphabetical Lint of Genera and Species 

in Oamaruian- 






1 Ototaran Stage. 




Genus and Species. 

j Lower or 









Galeodea senex (Hiitt.) 

Galeodes n. sp. 

Glycytneris cordata (Hutt.) . . 

globosa (Hutt.) 

i laticostata (Q. & G.) . . 

subglobosa Sut. 

Heliacus itnperfectxs Sut. 

I- — - — ■ variegatns Gmel. 
Heiniconxs ornatus (Hutt.) . . 
Hinniten trailli Hutt. 
Lapparia hebes (Hutt.) 
Latirus acutidngulatHs Sut. . . 

brevirostris (Hutt.) 

compactus Sut. 

elatior Sut. . . 



r-Leda bellula A. Ad. 

■ — ■ — semiteres Hutt. 
i-Leptothtjra Jtuctnata (Hutt.). . 

Leucosyrinx alta (Harris) 

alta transenna (Sut.) . . 

rlAtna angnlata Sow. 
I bullata (Born) 

colorata Hutt. 

hnttoni Sut. . . 

Jeffreys iana Tate 

IcBvigata Hutt. 

litna (L.) 

paleata Hutt. 

-■ — ■ — suteri Dull 

- Limopsis aurita (Brocchi) .. 

catenata Sut. . . 

zitteli von Iheu. 

[Assospira exigua Sut. 
Lithophaga nelsoniana Sut. . . 

■ Loripes concinna Hutt. 

laminata Hutt. 

Lyria n. sp. (new to N.Z. fauna) 
Macrocallista assimilis (Hutt.) 
muUistriata (Sow.) 

pareoraensis Sut. 

Mactra attenuata Hutt. 
— ■ — chnjdcea Sut. 
Malletia anstralis (Q. & G.) 
Mangilia canaliculatn Sut. . . 

— — • dictyota (Hutt.) 

graciletita Sut. 

— ■ — leptosoma (Hutt.) 
— — prijBCophinodes Sut. 
— ■ — protensa (Hutt.) 
sinclairi (Smith) 

tenuilirata Sut. 

■ ■ 1 






















i X 

1 . . 




















X 1 

■ ■ 1 

•• 1 

















Alphabelical List of Genera and Species in Oamarman — continued. 

Genus and Species. 




c o 
o o 

:_ o 




I ^' 

1 % 


1 o 




Mangilia ii. sp. 
MargineUa conica Harris 
fraudxdenta Sut. 

harrisi Cossm. 

pygmcea Sow. 

n. sp. 

-Megalatractus maximiis (Try 

Melina zealandica Sut. 
Merica n. spp. (3) 

(Aphera) n. spp. (2) 

Mesalia striolata Hutt. 
n. sp. 

-Mesodesma australe (Gmel.) 

siihtriangulatum (Gray 

Mitra armor ica Sut 

n. sp. 

— ■ — n. sp. 

Modiolaria eloiigata (Hutt.) 
Modiolus australis (Gray) 
Monodonta coracina Troscli. 
Murex angasi (Crosse) 
— — octogonus Q. & G. 
zelandiciis Q. & G. 

-Myodora crassa Stutchb. (ne 

pandoriforinis Stutchb 

- — — suhrostrata Smith 
-Mytilus mageUanicxs Lamk 

— ■ — huttoni Cossm. 
-Natica australis (Hutt.) 
- — — zelandica Q. & G. 

Niso n. sp. 

Nucula hartvigiana Pfr. 

nitidula A. Ad. 

sagittata Sut. 

strangei A. Ad. 

-Odostomia pudica Sut. 
- — ■ — rugata Hutt. 

- n. spp. (2) .. 
-Ostrea angasi Sow. 

r- — ■ — corrvgata Hutt. 

— - — incurva Hutt. 

• — ■ — nelsoniana Zitt. 
\ tatei Sut. 

wiiellerstorji Zitt. 

Panope orhita Hutt. 

■ worlhingtoni Hutt. 

- — — zelandica Q. & G. 

Parvisipko n. sp. . . 

Paphia oirta (Hutt.) 

Pecten accrementus Hutt. 

ahlingensis Tate 

heethami Hutt. 


■w as fossil) 
(new as fossil) 


Alphabetical List of Genera and iS]/ecies in Oanuiruian — continued. 

Genus and Species. 

.2 1 


"S 1 Waiarekan 





' — 



t- a 1 

2 6 



!« g) t- a 


a, a [ © o 


& i 

S^ ! i s i a 

•s i 

^ l^m: p 

^ i 

Pecten beethami var. B. Hiitt. 
■ — ^ — hurnetti Zitt. 

chathamensis Hutt. 

delicatnliis Hutt. 

fischeri Zitt. . . 

• — - — hochstetteri Zitt. 
— — hatchinsoni Hutt. 

hvttoni (Park) 

marshalli Sut. 

polyinorphoides Zitt. . . 

I- radiatns Hutt. 

scandula Hutt. 

semiplicatns Hutt. 

- — • — triphooki Zitt. 

venosns Hutt. 

tviUiainsoni Zitt. 

yahliensis Ten.-Woods. . 

zelandicB Gray 

— ■ — n. sp. 
-PhaliKin achatiwnn- pijrinn. (Lanik.) 

Pholadidea thomsoni Sut. 

Pholadomya neozelanica Hutt. 

Phos cingnlatus (Hutt.) 

Placunanomia incisnra Hutt. 
— — — zelandica (Gray) 

Pleurotomaria tertiaria McCoy 
-Polinices ani^phiahis (Watson) 

— ■ — gibbosua (Hutt.) 

huttani von Iher. 

IcBvis (Hutt. ) . . 

— ~ ovatitH (Hutt.) 

-Poroleda lanceolata (Hutt.) . . 
-Protocardia pvlchella (Gray) 
— — sera Hutt. 
-Psanunobia lineolata Gray . . 
stangeri Gray 

-Pupa alba (Hutt.) 

Rapana neozelanica Sut. 

Ringicula imiplicata Hutt. . . 
-Rissoina emarginata (Hutt.) 

n. sp. 

-Sarepta obolella (Tate) 

Scaphella elegantissima Sut. 
-Schismope atkinsoni (Ten.-Wood.s) 
-Seila b'llbosa Sut. . . 
-Serptilorbis sipho (Lamk.) . . 
'Siliquaria weldii Ten.-Woods (new 

Sinum carinatum (Hutt.) 

cinctum (Hutt.) 

elegans Sut. . . 

-Siphonalia caudata (Q. & G.) 

■ — ■ — canoidea (Zitt.) 












Alphabetical List of Genera and Species in Oamaruian — continued. 

Genus and Species. 









^ d 

g » 



OS W) 

^ c 


a. J 










- 1 



Siphonalia costata (Hutt.) 

dilatata (Q. & 6.) 

• — ■ — excelsa Sut. . . 

■ mandarina (Duclos) 

nodosa (Mart.) 

nodosa zitteli Siit. 

subnodosa (Hutt.) 

— — ■ turrita Sat. . . 



-Siphonium planatain Sut. 

Solariella stoliczkai (Zitt.) 

sulcatina Sut. 

-Spisula ordinaria (Smith) 

Streptochetus n. .sp. (genus new to N 



Struthiolaria cincta 

frazeri Hutt. 

• txberculata Hutt. 

• — ■ — tubercidata concinna 
- — — vermis (Mart.) 

Siibemarginula elata Sut. 
internhedia (Reeve) 

Surcula fusifotmis (Hutt.) 

- — ■ — hamiltoni (Hutt.) 

huttoni Sut. . . 

oamarutica Sut. 

• — ■ — pareoraensis (Sut.) 

serotina Sut. 


n. sp. 

n. spp. 

n. sp. 


Sveltia n. sp. 
-Tellina glabrella Desh. 

Terebra costata Hutt. 

■ — ■ — orycta Sut. 
tristis Desh. . . 

Teredo heaphyi Zitt. 

Tornatina n. sp. 
-Trichotropis clathrata Sow. 
-Triphora lutea Sut. 
-Trivia avellanoides (McCoy) 
-Trochus chathamensis (Hutt 
- — ■ — tiaratus Q. & 6. 

n. sp. 

■ n. sp. 

-Trophon hanleyi (Angas) 

lepidus Sut. . . 

minutissimus Sut. 



Turbo marshalli Thomson 
superbus Zitt. 

Z. fauna) 



Alphabetical List of Genera and Species in Oamaruian — continued. 

Genus and Species. 










1- a 

- ?. 

o § 


OS W) 

u a 


o o 


o CI 


O o 



O P< 





J j D 

Turhonilla oamarutica Sut. 

• — — prisca Sut. 
- — — zealandica (Hutt.) 

Turris regius Sut. . . 

• uttleyi Sut. . . 

Tnrritella anihulacr>ivk Sow. 
I carlotlcE Wats. 

■ caver sJuimensis Harris 

coHcatm Hutt. 

r- • pagoda Reeve 

— ■ — patagonica Sow. 
r- — ■ — rosea Q. & Gr. 

• — ■ — semiconcava Sut. 
r- — ■ — symmetrica Hutt. 

■ — — n. sp. 

Typhis vMccoyi Ten.-Woods 

Venericurdia acmUhodes Sut. 
r- — ^ — difficilis (Desli.) 

difficilis henhami (Thomson) 

- — ■ — cf. inoequalis Phil. 

: hitea (Hutt.) 

purpiirata (Desh.) 

psextes Sut. . . 

subinlermedia Sut. 

Vexilbirn. apicale (Hutt.) 
— ■ — enysi (Hutt.) 
■ — - — linctum (Hutt.) 

- — - — tnarginatum (Hutt.) 
- — ■ — rntidolomijyn Sut. 
-Volvulella reflexa (Hutt.) 
-Xetiophora corrugata (Reeve) 

sp. . . 

-Zenatia acinaces (Q. & G.) 






Bortonian Molluscs. 

Of the sixty-four species in the Bortonian 
fossils above that horizon. These are, — 
Athleta necopinata Sut. 
Clio rangiana (Tate). 
Etdhriojusus spinosus Sut. 
Galeodes n. sp. 
Lapparia hebes Hutt. 
lAthofhaga nelsonicma Sut. 
Lyria n. sp. 
^Nucula strangei A. Ad. 
Parvisipho n. sp. 

beds eighteen have not been found as 

rPoroleda lanceolaia Hutt. 

Rapana neo-zealanica Sut. 

Sinum elegans Sut. 

Solariella sulcatina Sut. 
■^Spisula ordinaria (Smith). 

Streptochelus n. sp. 

Struthiolaria tuberculata concinna Sut. 

Surcula n. sp. 

Surcula serotina Sut. 


Of these, Nucula strangei, Sjnsula ordinaria, and Poroleda lanceolala reappear In Recent 
times. Cardium huttoni von Iher, is confined to the Lower and I'jjper Waiarekan ; while 
Pholadomya neo-zealanica Hutt. ranges up to the middle of the Ototaran. 

The genera Lyria and Streptochetus are new to the New Zealand fauna. 

Upper Waiarekan Molluscs. 

Of the sixty-four species recorded from this stage, sixteen are confined to this 
horizon, namely, — 

Amusium zitteli (Hutt.). Ldma jejffreysiana Tate. 

Calliostoma n. sp. -^Mesodesma australe (Gmel.). 

— Cardita calyculata (L.). -^Mytilus magellanicus Lamk. 
Cardium n. spp. (2.) Pecten n. sp. 

Clio annulata (Tate). —Pupa alba (Hutt.). 

Cuspidaria n. sp. Trochus n. sp. 

Dentalium n. sp. Turbo superbus Zitt. 
-^Dosinia ccerulea Reeve. 

Five of the above species are Recent, but have not been seen in the Ototaran, 
Hutchinsonian, or Awamoan horizons. 

Astrtpa helioiropium Mart., a Recent species, runs into the Ototaran and disappears ; 
while Crassatellites obesus A. Ad., a living form which first appears in the Upper Waiarekan, 
runs through all the horizons. Pecten polymorphoides Zitt. was found only in the Upper 
Waiarekan and Ototaran. 

Ototaran Molluscs. 

Of the ninety-five species from the Ototaran, no less than twenty-seven are apparently 
restricted to that division of the Oamaruian. They are, — 

— Anomia huttoni Sut. Ostrea incurva Hutt. 
Aturia austraUs McCoy. Pecten accrementus Hutt. 
Cardium n. sp. Pecten beethami var. B. Hutt. 
Clavagella n. sp. Pecten chathamensis Hutt. 
Columbraria n. sp. Pecten venosus Hutt. 
Cyprcea ovulateUa Tate. Pholadidea thomsoni Sut. 
Epitonium nympha (Hutt.). Pleurotomarta tertiaria McCoy. 
Epitonium n. sp, Scaphella elegantissima Sut. 
Ewthria media (Hutt.). Siphonalia n. sp. 

Ficus transennus Sut. Trochus n. sp. 

Fusinus n. sp. Turbo marshalli Thomson. 

-^Gadinia conica Angas. Venericardia acanthoides Sut. 

^lAma lima (L.). Venericardia difficilis benhami (Thomson). 
-^ Mesodesma subtriangulatum (Gray). 

Cymbiola corrugata (Hutt.) makes its first appearance, and runs through all the later 
members of the system. The list includes four living species, none of which reappear in 
the Hutchinsonian or the Awamoan. The genera Clavagella and Columbraria are new to 
the New Zealand fauna. 

Almost all the molluscs from the Ototaran were obtained from the fossiliferous tuft's 
intercalated in the Oamaru stone. The Oamaru stone, being the remains of a polyzoan reef, 
contains only a few molluscs, those mostly Epitonium and various pectens, none of which 
are Recent. 

The molluscs contained in the Kakanui tufis represent the contemporary molluscan 
fauna of the adjacent seas. Most of the fossils occur in the upper portion of the tuft's. It 


is probable that the migration of the molluscs to this area only began when the explosive 
outbursts became feeble in the waning stage of the Ototaran period of volcanic activity. 
When complete quietude once more reigned the polyzoans again took possession of this 
area, and soon buried the molluscan invaders under a thick sheet of limestone. 

Pvroclastic deposits, from the nature of their origin, usually accumulate rapidly. During 
the Tarawera eruption in 1886 a sheet of fine and coarse volcanic ash was spread over 
hundreds of square miles in less than six hours, ranging from 20 ft. or more in thickness 
near the centre of activity to nothing some miles distant. The volcanic outbursts of the 
Ototaran stage were extremely violent in the Kakanui area during the earlier phases, but 
the activity became feeble and intermittent after the first great explosive outburst. How 
long the molluscan occupation of the coral-reef area lasted cannot be determined, but 
judging from present-day volcanic phenomena the ^•iew may be safely advanced tliat the 
time was relatively short. 

Many species that appear in the Waiarekan are absent from the Ototaran, but 
reappear in the overlying Hutchinsonian or Awanioan. The character of the Mollusca would 
doubtless be mainly dependent on the depth and condition of the sea-floor and the 

Hutchinsonian Molluscs. 

Of the fifty-four species identified from the Lower Hutchinsonian, four have so far 
been found only in that horizon. They are, 

CyprcBa Irelissickensis Sut. Fasinus solidus Sut. 

Epitonium n. sp. Xenophora cornigata Reeve. 

The living species, Xenophora corriit/ata Reeve, makes its appearance here, but is 
absent in the overlying beds. 

Among the mollu.scs that reach tiieir upward limit in the Lower Ilutchin.sonian are, — 

Fecten delicatulus Hutt. Folinices hultoui von Iher. 

Feet en Iriphooki Zitt. 

The material composing the Lower Hutchinsonian is highly glauconitic .sands, usually 
calcareous and abounding in brachiopods, pectens, Foraminifera, corals, and })olyzoans. 
The conditions of dejjosition, as indicated by the contained fauna, were clear deep waters 
that did not favour the intrusion of the varied moliu.scan life that frequents a muddy or 
sandy .sea littoral. Hence many of the species of inolhi.scs present in the Waiarekan and 
Ototaran tuffs are absent from the Lower Hutcliin.sonian, but reappear in tlie Upper 
Hutchinsonian and Awamoan. 

Of 142 species from the Upper Hutchinscjnian not less than 106 pass u])ward into 
the Awamoan ; of the remainder, twenty-four appear to be confined to this horizon, 
namely, — 

— Admete prcBCursoria Sut. Mitra n. sp. 

Ancilla mucronata (Sow.). -^Murex zelandicus Q. & G. 

Anomia frigonopsis Hutt. Niso n. sp. 

Astarte ausiralis Hutt. ^Ostrea tatei Sut. 

Borsonia cincta (Hutt.). -^ Struthiolaria vermis (Mart.). 
-^Calliostoma pellucid urn (Vai.). Suhemarginula elata Sut. 

Cominella exsculpla Sut. Surcula hamiUoni (Hutt.). 

Cytherea n. sp. Surcula n. spp. (2). 

Epitonium n. sp. ^ Trichotropis clathrata Sow. 

Exilia dalli Sut. Turris lUtleyi Sut. 

-Lima suteri Dall. ■^Turritella pagoda Reeve. 

Mangilia n. sp. 


Seven of the species in the above list reappear in the living molluscan fauna, but 
have not been identified in the Awamoan. 

The Upper Hutchinsonian appears to be the upward limit of Pecfen burnetti Zitt. 
and P. wilUamsoni Zitt. 

Although this horizon underlies the Awamoan, it contains a higher percentage of 
living species than the Awamoan. This has probably arisen from some change in the 
conditions of deposition before the beginning of the Awamoan. This change, though 
indicated by the absence from the Awamoan of several Recent species that are common 
in the Upper Hutchinsonian, could not have been of great moment, as nearly 75 per 
cent, of the molluscs fomid in the latter stage pass upwards into the Awamoan. 

Awamoan Molluscs. 

Of the 293 species from this stage, 161 species (or 55 per cent.) appear for the 
first time. Of these, Seila bulbosa Sut., Triphora Iwtea Sut., Siliquaria weldii Ten .-Woods, 
and Heliacus variegatus (Gmel.) are new as fossils ; while Rissoina emarginata (Hutt.), 
Odostomia pudica Sut., Eulima ohliqua (Hutt.), Anachis pisaniopsis (Hutt.), and Mangilia 
dictyota (Hutt.) are new to the Miocene. Trivia avellanoides (McCoy) is new to the 
New Zealand fauna. 

Oamaruian Brachiopods. 

Tabulation of Oamaruian Brachiopods. 


















Liothyrella oamarutica (Boehm) 

— — boehmi Thomson 

■ — ■ — latidonensis Thomson 

pulchra Thomson 

■ concentrica (Hutt.) 

Terebratulina oamarutiea Boehr 

siiessi Hutt. 

Murravia catinuliformis (Tate) 
Terebratella totaraensis Thomso 

kakanuiensis Hutt. 

• — — sp., cf. neozelandica von 
Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) 

ellipticus Thomson 

■ — ■ — • trelissickensis Thomson . 

huttoni Thomson 

Rhizothyris rhizoida (Hutt.) . 
Neothyris tapirina (Hutt.) 

— ■ — vttleyi Thomson (MS.) . 

esdailei Thomson 

Magella carinata Thomson 
Mtheia gaulteri (Morris) 
Hemithyris squamosa (Hutt.) . 

nigricans (Sow.) 

— ■ — depressa Thomson 

sublcBvis Thomson 



[her. ". 






















* Apparently derived from underlying Upper Hutchinsonian. 


Of the twenty-five species of brachiopods listed above as found in the Oamaruian, 
twenty species are found in the Ototaran, and, of these, one-half pass upward 
into the Lower Hutchinsonian. Four of the twenty first appear in the upper 
portion of the Upper Waiarekan, and only one of them {Pachymagas parki (Hutt.) ) 
reaches the Upper Hutchinsonian. In other words, the brachiopods are almost ex- 
clusively confined to the calcareous members of the system. 

Most of the brachiopods are very limited in horizontal distribution. Thus Terebratula 
oamarutica, T. boehmi, and Terehratnlina oanmrutica are restricted to the coastal area 
bounded approximately on the west by the Dunedin-Oamaru Railway ; and Terebratula 
■pulchra, T. landonensis, Terebratella totaraensis, and Neothyris nttleyi to the area lying 
. west of the railway. On the other hand, Terebratulina suessi, Mtheia gauUeri, Neothyris 
tapirina, Pachymagas parki, Rhizothyris rhizoida, and Hemithyris squamosa are distributed 
throughout the whole of north-east Otago. Pachymagas parki occurs in great abundance 
in the Lower Hutchinsonian, usually to the exclusion of all other brachiopods except 
Rhizothyris rhizoida, which is nearly always present with it. 

Dr. Thomson states {in litteris, November, 1916) that the following manuscript species 
of his occur in the Oamaru district in addition to those listed above : Hemithyris antipoda, 
Bouchardia minima, Argyrotheca or Kraussina or Megerlina sp., Pachymagas abnormis, 
and Neothyris esdailei. Terebratella totaraensis Thomson is possibly the same as T. 
kakamiiensis Hutt Pachymagas rruirshalli Andrew he considers a synonym of P. 
parki Hutt. (See also pages 117-119.) 

General Conclusions. 

The adoption of stage-names as representing time-planes has been fully justified by 
the palaeontological evidence. An obvious advantage of stage-names is that it avoids 
a source of error that is apt to arise through the adoption of a lithological name, or of 
a place-name that has become intimately associated with a particular type of rock. The 
use in previous reports of the name " Oamaru stone " as a time-name has sometimes 
led to the erroneous conclusion that all the rocks of this age throughout New Zealand 
must be limestone, or in some way form lines of escarpment like the Oamaru stone of 
the Oamaru district. 

The analysis of the lists of fossils shows that the proportion of Recent species in 
the Oamaruian ranges from 23 per cent, in the Lower Waiarekan to 33-3 per cent, in 
in the Awamoan, a result which clearly establishes the Miocene age of the Oamaruian. 

Thin flaggy fossiliferous layers of the Bortonian of Lower Waiarekan age represent 
the first encroachment of the sea on the Ngaparan lignitic series. The Bortonian 
contains a moUuscan fauna with some features that easily distinguish it from the Upper 
Waiarekan fauna. The Upper Waiarekan fauna shows a closer relationship to the 
Ototaran than the Bortonian, which in some respects stands apart. 

As the advancing sea came from the east or south-east, it is probable that the 
Bortonian will not be pre.sent at Wharekuri or in the Waihao district of South Canter- 
bury. In this case the marine beds overlying the lignitic measures at these places 
would find their nearest time-equivalent in the Upper Waiarekan. 

The Oamaru stone was formed fiom the remains of Polyzoa. It is local in dis- 
tribution, and covers only a portion of the Oamaru district. Between Kakanui and 
Oamaru it is partly replaced by intercalated fossiliferous tuffs and breccias. To the 
north-west it rapidly thins, and finally disappears in the lower Waitaki Valley, its place 
being taken by sandy beds. 

The Lower Hutchinsonian is the most distinctive and persistent horizon of the 
Oamaruian system ; it always overlies the Oamaru stone. In the Oamaru area it 
consists of calcareous glauconitic greensands that at Land on Creek and lower Waitaki 


Valley are partly or wholly replaced by calcareous glauconitic sandstone. But whether 
greensands or glauconitic sandstone, the characteristic brachiopod Pachymagas parh 
Hutt. and the peculiar corals Isis dactyla Ten. -Woods and Mopsea hamiltoni (Thomson) 
are always present, The Waitaki stone is underlain by the greensands. 

The results of the present survey confirm the view of Captain Hutton, Sir James 
Hector, and Alexander McKay that the Waitaki stone is Hutchinsonian (pp. 65 and 66) 
as opposed to the contention of Thomson, Uttley, and others that the Waitaki stone 
is the horizontal equivalent of the Oamaru stone. 

At Waihao in South Canterbury the Waihao stone, a calcareous glauconitic sand- 
stone, is underlain by greensands and followed conformably, as shown by McKay and 
Thomson, by the Awamoan Mount Harris beds. Investigation will probably show that 
the Waihao stone is also Hutchinsonian. The view that the Waihao stone is the time- 
equivalent of the Oamaru stone (= Ototaran) would imply the absence of the whole of 
the Hutchinsonian in South Canterbury. Such a hiatus would mean an unconformity 
between the Waihao stone and the Mount Harris beds, of which, however, there is no 

Correlation of Oamaru, Waitaki, and Waihao Cainozoic Strata. 

Oamaru District. Lower Waitaki Valley. Waihao District. 

Blue clays and shelly Sandy beds . . Blue clays and sands, cal- 

sands careous. 

Glauconitic sandstone Calcareous glauconitic Glauconitic sandstone (Wai- 

( Devil s Bridge, Lan- sandstone (Waitaki hao stone). 

don Creek) stone) 

Greensands . . . . Greensands . . . Greensands. 

Coralline (Oamaru) lime- Bluish-grey glauconitic Bluish-grey sandy beds. 

stone sandy beds 

Sandy clays and sand- Sandy beds and sand- Sandy clays and sandstones. 

stones stones 

Quartzose sands, &c., Quartzose sands, &c., Quartzose sands, &c., with 

with lignite with lignite lignite. 


Upper Hutchinsonian 

Lower Hutchinsonian 


The Oamaruian is the most widespread Tertiary formation in New Zealand. At one 
time it formed a continuous marginal sheet around the shores of Miocene New Zealand ; 
and even now it exists as isolated remnants on the coasts of both Islands. It occurs 
at sea-level, usually as gently sloping strata ; and also far inland, either as horizontal 
strata lying on faulted blocks as on the west coast of Nelson, or as wedges deeply 
involved in orogenic folds as in the Lake Wakatipu area, or as down-faulted blocks as 
in the Trelissick Basin. The valuable coal-seams it contains make it of great economic 
importance. Beyond the limits of New Zealand the Oamaruian is well represented at 
the Chatham and Campbell Islands. 

In age the Oamaruian may be correlated with the Table Cape beds of Tasmania, 
the Janjukian of Southern Australia, the Navidad beds of Chile, and perhaps with the 
Middle Cainozoic deposits of Patagonia. 




High-level Gravels. 

These gravels cover the Oamaru tableland to a depth ranging from 2 ft. to 60 ft. They 
consist mainly of well water-worn gre^'wacke boulders and pebbles, together with a small 
proportion of pebbles of quartz and red jasperoid rock. The source of the material 
is to be found in the Kakanui Mountains and upper Waitaki Valley. The gravels were 
laid down by the Waitaki River when the land stood some 200 ft. or more lower than 
at present. 

The Oamaru tableland rises gradually from a height of 230 ft. at the sea-front to a 
height of 550 ft. at Duntroon. At the base of the gravel, as seen on the north side 
of Target Gully half a mile below the Oamaru Reservoir, there is a bed of fine sand 
some 8 ft. or 10 ft. thick. 

The thin sheet of gravel in the area between Three Roads and the Awamoa Creek 
is largely composed of quartzose material. It appears to have been laid down by the 
Kakanui River during the Pleistocene. 




Page I Page 

Raised Beaches .. .. ..112 Yellow Silts .. .. ..113 

42 ft. raised Beach .. .. 112 River and Valley Gravels .. ..113 

12 ft. raised Beach . . . . 112 I 


Raised Beaches. 

42 ft. Raised Beach. 

The blasting operations of the Oamaru Harbour Board have destroyed the greater 
portion of this beach. A small portion of it still remains on the quarry-face at 
the end of the outer breakwater, not far from the steps leading up to the lighthouse 
(Fig. 32, page 75). The rock in which it was cut is the tachyhtic breccia at one 
time used by the Harbour Board for harbour-improvement works. 

The raised beach consists of greywacke pebbles mixed with sand and broken shells. 
The molluscs identified by Suter from this raised rock-platform were, — 

Mytilus edulis L. Limopsis aurita (Brocchi). 

Mytilus sp. Haliotis australis Gmel. 

Ostrea angasi Sow. 

A small remnant of this platform still remains at Boatman's Harbour, but else- 
where it is obscured by silts and slope deposits. All the molluscs on this raised platform 
are Recent. 

12 ft. Raised Beach. 

This forms a narrow rock-ledge fringing the coast at many places between the 
Oamaru Breakwater and the Rifle Butts. It is also well seen at Kakanui and All 
Day Bay. 

At the breakwater it is excavated in the tachylitic breccia ; at Boatman's Harbour, 
in the basaltic pillow-lava ; at Cape Wanbrow, in tuSs ; at the Rifle Butts, in the different 
members of the marine Oamaruian strata ; at Kakanui, in limestone and in tuffs. This 
rock-platform has everywhere suffered greatly from the effects of marine erosion, and 
in most places has been worn back till it is now a narrow ledge varying from a few 
inches to a few yards wide. 

The raised beach resting on this platform of marine erosion consists of pebbly 
gravel and gritty sand mixed with marine shells. At Cape Wanbrow and the Rifle 
Butts shells are very abundant. The following species, all Recent, were collected 
between Cape Wanbrow and the Rifle Butts : — 

Helciomscus ornatus (DiUw.). Trochus tiaraius Q. & G. 

Helcioniscus ornatus inconspicuus Monodonta coracina (Troschel). 

(Gray). Moriodonta mthiops (Gmel.). 

Helcioniscus radians (Gmel.). Cantharidus tenebrosus A. Ad. 

Helcioniscus radians affinis Gmel. Calliostoma punctulatum (Mart.). 

Helcioniscus radians flavus (Hutt.). Siphonaria obliquata Sow. 

Etnarginula siriatula Q. & G. Turbo smaragdus (Mart.). 

Plate XII. 

. i<. 1 



A. C Oifford, //hotii 

Pleistocexk Silts xkak I{ri:.\k\vater, Oamaku. 

Gen/. BuV. To. 20. \ 

[To face page 112. 


Calyptrcea maculata (Q. & G.). Ostrea reniformis Sow. (?) 

Trichotropis clathmta Sow. Ostrea tatei Sut. 

Anjobuccinum tumidum (Dki.) Venericardia purpurata (Desh.). 

= argus of Manual. = australis of Manual. 

Euthria striata (Hutt.). Venericardia difficilis (Desh.). 

Trophon corticatus (Hutt.). Tellina alba Q. & G. 

Tro-phon plehejus (Hutt.). Leptomya lintea (Hutt.). 
Fulgoraria arabica elongata (Swains.). Mesodesma snbtriangulatum (Gra}). 

Anomia huttoni Sut. Mactru discors Gray. 

Olycymeris modesta (Angas). Spisula oequilateralis (Desh.). 

Mytilus edulis L. Dosinia anus (Phil.). 
M y til u s canalicnlus Mart. (?) Cytherea ohlonga (Hanley) {'.). 

(fragments). OJiione mesodesma (Q. & G.). 

Mytilus magella)iicHS Lamk. Terebratella sa>iguinea Leach. 
Ostrea angasi Sow. 

Yellow Silts. 

The silts rest on the Pleistocene gravels on the Oamaru tableland, on the naarine 
Oaiuaruian .strata in the Awamoan syncline, and on the Miocene volcanic rocks between 
Oamaru and Deborah and around Cape Wanbrow. They are very fine and uniform in 
texture, and usually pale yellowish-brown in colour. The greatest depth of these silts 
is along the sea-front of the Oamaru tableland behind Oamaru, and between the railway 
and the breakwater on the lower slopes of the Cape Hill. Generally they are thickest 
in hollows and on the lee-side of the ridges. 

Behind Oamaru, between Eden and Chamberlin streets, they are piled up to a 
depth of over 30 ft. against the outer slope of the hill, but as they rise upward they 
thin out rapidly, like drifts of wind-borne .sand. Drifts of silt over 50 ft. deep lie 
against the foot of the hill-slopes facing the breakwater. (Plate XII.) 

No fossil remains were found in the silts. At the Rifle Butts there is a slope 
deposit consisting of sandstone blocks and silts ; in this there occur many moa-bones, 
mostly badly preserved. This deposit is evidently younger than the silts. 

It is generally believed that the silts are dried glacial muds that were carried 
seaward from the Waitaki , Valley by strong north-west winds during the Pleistocene 
extension of the glaciers. Their mode of occurrence and their wide distribution tend 
to show that they were wind-borne. They probably originated during the retreat of 
the old Waitaki and other glaciers. 

River and Valley Gravels. 

These cover the great Papakaio Plain. They form several low broad terraces, 
which mark a gradual elevation of the land in comparatively late times. 

A wide gravel plain borders the Kakanui River from Maheno to a point a mile 
beyond the Kaiiroo River junction. 

8- Oamaru. 




Page I '• Page 

Stone for Harbour- works .. .. 114 Limestones .. .. ..115 

Building-stone .. .. .. 114 | Rock Phosphate .. .. ..115 

Stone for Harbour-works. 

The Oamaru district has already been examined by Mr. P. G. Morgan* and Dr. Thomsonf 
for possible quarry-sites where suitable stone could be obtained for harbour-works. 

Careful examination was made of all the possible sources of supply mentioned by 
Morgan and Thomson, but none were found satisfactory. It is laid down by harbour 
engineers that a stone for harbour-improvement works in exposed places must be hard 
and heavy, and procurable in large blocks at a reasonable cost. When these conditions 
cannot be fulfilled it is considered best and most economical to use concrete blocks. 

The basalts and dolerites in the district are always so much shattered that the 
obtaining of large blocks of them would be too costly. Thomson and Morgan suggested 
that an experiment should be made with Oamaru stone for the breakwater-extension works. 
A ledge of Oamaru stone projects from the sea-cliffs at Shirley Creek, near the Rifle 
Butts, and it seems to have resisted the action of the sea fairly successfully, but at this 
place the only abrasive material is a rather coarse sand. At the outer breakwater at 
Oamaru the Oamaru stone would be subject to the pounding of waves loaded with 
coarse gravel, and it is doubtful if such a soft rock would be able to resist the assault 
successfully. Limestones, no matter how hard, are always liable to be attacked by 
boring molluscs. The Plymouth Breakwater, erected at great cost of Portland limestone, 
was in time destroyed by the attack of the Teredo. If the Oamaru stone blocks were 
protected by an apron of harder rock it would make a good material for harbour-works, 
provided it were not attacked by the Teredo. In some situations limestones are not 
attacked by sea molluscs, hence it would be advisable to make an experiment with 
Oamaru stone as suggested by Thomson and Morgan. 

The special requirement of the Oamaru Harbour scheme is that the stone must be 
procurable in 12-ton blocks, at a cost not exceeding 7s. 6d. per ton delivered at the 
breakwater. The only stone that fulfils this requirement occurs on the lower slopes 
of the hill about half a mile above Peebles. Here there is a large deposit of hard 
limonitic conglomerate that could be easily quarried in blocks up to 100 tons. Tlie 
deposit lies close to the main road to Duntroon, and the railway could be connected 
with the quarry by a short siding. The cost of quarrying this stone and of loading 
and railway freight would amount to about 7s. per ton. 


Among the fret cutting limestones of New Zealand the Oamaru building-stone is 
without a rival. Large deposits of it occur at Deborah, Totara, Teschemaker's, Weston, 
Gay's, Teaneraki, and Devil's Bridge. It is proposed to deal with the Oamaru stone 
as a building-stone in a separate paper. 

* Ninth Annual Beporl (New Series J, Geological Survey Brancli, Appendix (J, 1916, p. 96. 
t ioe. cit., pp. 98-100. 



Valuable deposits of hard limestone suitable for burning for lime for agricultural 
purposes occur at Flat Top Hill and Teaneraki. The deposits at Kakanui, Deborah, 
and Hutchinson's Quarry are practically exhausted. 

Average sRmples of limestone and calcareous sandstone were analysed by Dr. Maclaurin, 
with the following results : — 


Insoluble in acid 

Alumina (AljOj) 

Iron oxide (FegOa) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Carbonic anhydride 

Moisture and organic matter 














1-81 [ 



























(1.) Limestone from Meek's Quarry, Teaneraki. 
(2.) Hutchinson Quarry limestone, Oamaru. 
(3.) Arenaceous Waitaki stone, Duntroon. 
(4.) Calcareous Waitaki stone, Duntroon. 
(5.) Limestone, Flat Top Hill, Kakanui. 


Rock Phosphate. 

Numerous samples of rocks from likely places were collected during tho progress 
of the survey, with the view of determining their calciiuii-phosphate content. Samples 
were obtained at All Day Bay, Kakanui Quarry, road north of Rocky Peak, Deborah 
railway-cutting, Hutchinson's Quarry, Devil's Bridge, west branch of Landon Creek, 
Landon Creek, Big Flume Creek, and Borton's. The tricalcic-j)hosphate content was 
determined at the Otago University, with the following results : — 

Tricalcic Phosphate. 

All Day Bay, of greensands 
Kakanui Quarry, top of limestone 
Road north of Rocky Peak, top of tuffs 
Deborah railway-cutting, top of conglomerate 
Hutchinsons Quarry, top of conglomerate 
Devil's Bridge, top of conglomerate 
West branch of Landon Creek, base of greensands 
Landon Creek, base of glauconitic sandstone 
Big Flume Creek, base of glauconitic sandstone 
Borton's, top of greensands 

Pw Cent. 

The average of three samples from the Hutchinson's Quarry limestone gave 0-72 per 
cent, of tricalcic phosphate. 

There do not appear to be any rock-phosphate deposits of economic value in the 
Oamaru district. 



]. Nomenclature of Fossil Species. 

While this bulletin was in preparation and passing through the press a considerable number 
of alterations in generic and specific names were made on the authority of Mr. Suter. 
Unfortunately, it has been found impossible to embody all of them in the text. Many 
of the alterations were in manuscript species, descriptions of which are published in 
Palseontological Bulletin No. 5, which was in the press concurrently with this bulletin. 
The reader is requested to make the following corrections in the text of the preceding 
pages : — 

For Latirus acutiatigulatus Sut. read Tritonidea acutiangulata Sut. 

Latirus compactus Sut. ., Tritonidea compacta Sut. 

Latirus elatior Sut. ,, Tritonidea elatior Sut. 

Mangilia canaliadata Sut. ,, Bela canaliculata Sut. 

Mangilia infelix Sut. ,, Bela infelix Sut. 

Mangilia tenuilirata Sut. ,, Ptijchatractus tenuilirata Sut. 

Suhemarginida intermedia (Reeve) ,, Tugalia intermedia (Reeve). 

The following new species from the Oamaru district, described by Suter in Palas- 
ontological Bulletin No. 5, may be added to those mentioned on the preceding pages :^ 

Cantharidus Jenestratus. Calcareous tuffs. Trig. M, Oamaru. 

Turbo approximatus. Locality No. 486, greensands, Wharekuri, Waitaki Valley. 

Turritella (Zaria) abscisa. Oamaru. Exact locality unknoT\Ti. 

Sinum Jornicatum. Right bank of Maerewhenua River. 

Ficus parvus. Calcareous band in blue tuff below limestone, Rifle Butts, Oamaru. 

Architectonica ngaparaensis. Locality No. 487, concretions overlying coal-beds, 

Epitonium gracillimum . Left bank of Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri. 
Niso neozelanica. Left bank of Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri. 
Ptychatractus puheuriensis Pukeuri. 
Vexillum Jenestratum. Pukeuri. 

Vexillum ligatum. Left bank of Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri. 
Euthria callimorpha. Left bank of Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri. 
Alectrion (Tritia) latecostata. Pukeuri. 

Turris himarginatus. Locality No. 630, EsdaUe collection, Teaneraki (Enfield). 
Turris neglectus. Locality No. 630, Esdaile collection, Teaneraki. 
Mangilia blandiata. Trig. Z, Otiake River. 

Borsonia mitromorphoides. Left bank of Waitaki River, opposite Wharekuri. 
Daphnella (Raphitoma) neozelanica. Locality No. 630, Esdaile collection, Teaneraki. 


Tenison- Woods* in 1880 described a number of corals and Polyzoa (Bryozoa) from 
the Oamaru district. The only one of these mentioned by name in the preceding pages 

* Tenison -Woods, J. E. : " GoraLs and Bryozoa of the Neozoic Period in New Zealand." Palceontology 
oJ.Xew Zealan'h Part IV. Wellington, 1880. " 


is Isis (lactyJa. The species recorded by Tenison-Woods as occurring in tlie Oamaru 
district are, — ■ 


his dactyla T. -Woods. Hutchinson's Quarry. 

Notocyathus pedicellatus T.- Woods. Oamaru. Horizon not known. 

Flabellum circulare T. -Woods. North bank of Maerewhenua River, from " Phorus 

beds overlying the Ototara limestone.'' 
FlabellumC^) simplex T. -Woods. Limekiln Gully {i.e., the gully below Hutchinson's 

limekiln, adjoining the quarry. (=:Lower part of Target Gully.) 
Flabellum radians T. -Woods. Oamaru limestone. 
Flabellum attenuatum T. -Woods. Oamaru. 
Flabellum sp., perhaps F. laticoslatum T. -Woods. Oamaru. 
FlulyJielia dislans T. -Woods. Awamoa beds. Oamaru. 

Polyzoa (Bryozoa). 
Spiroporina vertehralis Stol. Hutchinson's Quarry. 
Eschara ampla T. -Woods. Hutchinson's Quarry. 
Porina dieffenhachii Stol. Hutchinson's Quarry. 
Cellepmaria gamhierensis Busk. Oamaru. 

Celleporaria nxmmnlaria T. -Woods {nomen nudum of Busk). Hutchinson's Quarry. 
Vincularia mxiorica Stol. Hutchinson's Quarrj'. 
Cellaria punctata T.-Woods. Oamaru. 

From Tenison- Woods's remarks it may be gathered that Melicerita angu^tiloba Busk, 
and probably other species of Polyzoa not mentioned above, also occur in the Oamaru 

3. Brachiopoda. 

Dr. .T. .Vllaii Thomson has kindly supplied the following brief diagnoses of new 
si)ecies nientiont'd in this bulletin. Fuller descri|)tions, accompanied by figures, will 
appear in a paheontological bulletin, of which the manuscript is now almost ready. 

Genus Hemithyris. 

Two valid species of Hemithyris have previously been described from the New 
Zealand area, H. nigricans (Sow.) and H. squamosa (Hutt.). The following new species 
also occur in the Oamaru district : — 

H. antipoda : Type locality, Curiosity Shop, Rakuia River, Canterbury : dimensions 

of holotype — length 20 mm., breadth 22 mm., thickness 11mm. 
H. depressa : Type locality, limestone above tuffs, one mile north of Kakanui 
Quarry, Oamaru district (Uttley) ; dimensions of holotype — length 14 mm., 
breadth 16 mm., thickness 8 ram. 
H. sublawis : Type locality, Everett's limestone-quarry, Kakanui, Oamaru district; 
dimensions of holotype — length 10 mm., l)readth 10-5 mm., thickness 7 mm. 
H. nigricans, H. sqitamosa, and H. antipoda are about the same size, and are 
distinguished primarily by the character of the ribs. In H. nigricans these are stout, 
rounded, and not imbricate ; in H. antipoda they are similar in size but rather more 
numerous, and are incipiently spinous ; in H. squamosa they are finer and more 
numerous, and are incipiently spinous. 

H. depressa and H. sublcevis are smaller species, both with short beaks. H. depressa 
is broader and more depressed, and possesses numerous fine ribs with imbrication 
towards the margin. H. sublcBvis is more narrowly and strongly folded, and possesses 
numerous fine ribs, little imbricated, and in many specimens almost obsolete. 
9 — Oamaru. 


Genus lAothyrella. 

Five valid species occur in the New Zealand area— \'iz;., L. fpavida (Suess), L. 
concentrica (Hutt.), L. oamandica (Boehin), L. ve/flecta (Hutt.). and L. magna (Hamilton). 
The last species does not occur in the Oaraaru district, and L. neglecta has not been 
identified with certainty, but probably occurs. The following new species are recorded 
in this bulletin : — 

L. boehmi : Type locality, loc. 490, tuffs underlying limestone at Everett's Quarry, 
Kakanui (McKay, 1882) ; dimensions of holotype — length 52 mm., breadth 
40 mm., thickness 32 mm. 
L. pulchra : Type locality, calcareous tuffs, Trig. M. near Totara, Oamaru 
district (Uttley) ; dimensions of holotype- -length 27 mm., breadth 24 mm., 
thickness 15 mm. 
L. landonensis : Type locality, glauconitic limestone at the top of the Ototaran. 
Landon Creek. Oamaru district (Uttley) ; dimensions of holotype — length, 
16 mm., breadth 14 mm., thickness 8 mm. 
L. boehmi agrees nearly in size with L. gravida, but is much narrower, and the 
condition of the foramen is less advanced, being marginate with only the beginning of 
labial projection. 

L. pulchra is rather shorter than L. oamanitica and L. concentrica, and is relatively 
broader and more depressed. It is easily distinguished by being narrowly biplicate. 
The foramen is marginate in condition. 

L. landonensis is slightly larger than L. neglecta, and is broader and more depressed. 
The foramen is marginate. 

Genus Pachymagas. 

Four species referable to Pachymagas have been named from New Zealand — viz., 
P. triangidaris (Hutt.), P. parli (Hutt.), P. marshalli (Andrew), and P. huttoni 
Thomson. The first-named is known only from two specimens in the Dominion and 
Otago museums, each labelled " Oamaru " and with a greensand matrix, but the exact 
locality is uncertain. P. marshalli, although very different in shape from the holotype 
of P. parki, seems linked up to it by insensible gradations, and has here been treated 
as a synonym. P. parki, as here conceived, is therefore a polymorphic species, all the 
members of which are of similar size, and possess mesothyrid foramens of moderate size. 
Two new species have been dift'erentiated, easily distinguished from P. parki by the size 
of the foramen, viz. : — 

P. trelissickensis : Type locality, loc. 449, " lower beds, Trelissick Basin, Canter- 
bury, Enys, 1880"; dimensions of holotype — length 40 mm., breadth 32 mm., 
thickness 20 mm. 
P. ellipticus : Type locality, " greensands below the Maerewhenua limestone, 
Waitaki Valley " (Uttley) ; dimensions of holotype — length 29 mm., breadth 
25 mm., thickness 14 mm. 
P. trelissickensis in shape and size resembles the holotype of P. parki, but is less 
strongly folded, and is distinguished from similar variants of the P. parki series by the 
possession of a blunter beak with a large oval foramen, and of a slightly broader 

P. ellipticus is a smaller species than P. parki, and is elliptical rather than ovate. 
It possesses a very short beak with a small foramen which is submesothyrid, but almost 
mesothyrid. The cardinalia are pachymagoid, with a primitive cardinal process. 


Genus Neothyris (sensu lato). 

N. esdailei sp. nov. : Type locality, loc. 831, tufaceous greensands, Upper Waiareka 
Valley, Oamaru district (Esdaile) ; dimensions of holoty^je — length 22 mm., 
breadth 17 mm., thickness 12 mm. 

This is a ventrally biplicate species, agreeing in beak characters and folding with 
Magellania johnstoniana Tate, but less elongate than that species, and comparable in 
shape to half-grown specimens. The generic position is uncertain. 

Genus Terebratella. 

T. totaraensis sp. nov. : Type locality, calcareous tuft's. Trig. M, near Totara, 
Oamaru district ; dimensions of holotype — length 10-5 mm., breadth 9 mm., 
thickness 6 mm. 

This is a small, rather featureless, ovate species with occasional faint marginal 
multicostation in front. Young specimens agree nearly in shape with adults of 
Terebratella oamarutica Boehm, but are much narrower and more convex than young 
specimens of that S2)ecies of the same length. In shape the species may therefore be 
described as similar to T. oamarutica, but more advanced in elongation. 

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